Agriculture Development in India: A State Level Analysis

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Surendra Singh


Agriculture plays vital role in the process of economic development of less developed countries like, India. Besides providing food for the nation, agriculture absorbs labor, provides saving, contributes to the market of industrial goods and earn overseas exchange. The present study attempted to examine the performance of Indian agriculture during post green revolution period and economic reform period. A semi-log model was used to calculate compound annual growth rate of major food and non-food crops. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the land use pattern change and cropping pattern change. Fertilizer use ratio was calculated to examine the judicious use of chemical fertilizers. Study findings reveal that though, green revolution moved out from the food crisis arisen in the early sixties in some extent, but it also brought regional disparities in the resources use, productivity and cropping pattern.  Promotional price policy for some cash crops leads to scarcity in others. Change in an environmental factors, along with economic and technological factors are increasing degree of the vulnerability in farm profits in particular and the livelihood of farmers in general. The present study suggested following policy implications.  First, there is need of ultramodern technology that provides up-to-date weather information. Second, government should promote home-made bio-fertilizers and organic farm practices. Third, an intensive survey should be carrying out to understand the farm requirement of marginal farmers and based on the feedback mechanism, technology would be develop. Fourth, private investors should be invited to develop a food chain mechanism to procure the food items at the time of harvesting and release in the off-cropping season for price stability. Lastly, India needs land reforms, in which, land consolidation and identification of real farmers should be given first priority.

Regional imbalances, CAGR, agriculture development, cropping pattern change, fertilizers consumption.

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How to Cite
Singh, S. (2020). Agriculture Development in India: A State Level Analysis. South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, 6(2), 17-34.
Original Research Article


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