Wage, Profit, Employment and Output in Indian Organized Manufacturing Sector during UPAI & UPA II and NDA I & NDA II (Modi I) Regimes
South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics,
This paper comparatively examines wages, profits, employment and output in Indian organized manufacturing sector during two political regimes, National Democratic Alliance (NDA) and NDA under the Prime-minister of Mr. Narendra Modi, and United Progressive Alliance (UPA). These four aspects of industrial development in India are analyzed in the context of political economy of neo-liberal reforms and sustainable development goals (SDGs) to be achieved by 2030. By using data of Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), the political economy of the two regimes is comparatively analyzed in the four periods/year, viz., NDA I (1999-2004), UPA I (2004-2009), UPA II (2009-2014) and Modi I (2018-2019). There are four empirical results in this analysis: (i) decrease in share of wages of blue-collar workers to white-collar workers, (ii) higher level and share of blue-collar workers at 79% and constant respective shares of clerks and white-collar workers at 12% and 10% over fourth regimes, (iii) increase in contract blue-collar workers, (iv) increase in feminization of blue-collar workers. These empirical results advocates policy implications for descent work, inclusive industrial and sustainable development in the Covid era.
- sustainable development goals
- manufacturing sector
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