https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/issue/feed South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics 2024-07-17T07:16:27+00:00 South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics contact@journalsajsse.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2581-821X)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJSSE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Economics and Social Studies’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/848 The Impact of Social Values and Culture on Discrimination against Women 2024-06-27T09:34:33+00:00 Orhan Göktepe orhan.goktepe@yeniyuzyil.edu.tr <p>Discrimination and violence against women have a universal character in all societies across the world. The reason why this cannot be prevented completely so far is the insistence on inaccurate policies against women. This study aims to reveal that violence against women stems from centuries-old patriarchal culture and to offer solutions for it. The study is based on the written sources of ancient civilizations throughout the historical process, statistical data of international non-governmental organizations and institutions, and the review of extensive literatures mentioned in the reference list on the subject. Patriarchal discrimination and violence against women are seen almost every society, albeit at different levels. A cultural domination that imposes women's submissive acceptance of men's absolute superiority has been continuing for centuries. Masculine resistance to accepting that women are individuals with equal rights stems from cultural values subsequently learned. These widespread social values are the main reason for discrimination and hostility towards women. Violation or rejection of the behavioral norms determined for women results in punishment and sanctions based on religion, morality, customs and traditions. It has shown that providing better education and job opportunities for women or enforcing more severe penal laws on crimes against women is not enough to achieve the desired results. For success, something different needs to be done. The existence of centuries-old patriarchal cultural values does not only stem from the men who are the perpetrators of violence and discrimination against women. Women who internalize this unfair behavior and accept it silently also have responsibilities in the continuation of these wrong values. Although it is too difficult to change centuries-old prejudices and cultural values against women, it is not impossible. Adopting the right cultural values in society is requiring persistent struggle that includes family, school, religious institutions and social media.</p> 2024-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/851 Bibliometric Analysis on Rural Non-farm Sector: Study on Scopus Database During 1990-2022 2024-07-03T10:20:38+00:00 Liya Teressa Alex liyateressaalex118@gmail.com <p>The rural non-farm sector is increasingly playing an essential role in the development of rural areas around the world. Specifically, as agriculture in the region's contribution to the economy declines, the rural non-farm sector will need to increasingly become a significant provider of employment and income to many rural people. However, rural non-farm employment is not a substitute for employment in agriculture but rather an additional measure. Promoting the rural non-farm sector should be undertaken within the border context of rural development. Bibliometric analysis is a rare contribution to the field of Rural Non-Farm research. Therefore, a bibliometric analysis of the publications may provide a direction for future research and a detailed topic analysis. The global literature about Rural Non-Farm published between 1990 and 2022 was scanned from the Scopus database. The keywords used to get the relevant publications are given as "Rural" AND "Non-Farm" in the search criteria "Article Title, Abstract, Keyword". A total of 1135 papers were chosen for this study to conduct bibliometric analysis. VOSviewer is used to carry out the bibliometric analysis. VOS viewer software was used to create maps based on network data of scientific publications displaying relationships among researchers, countries, and scientific journals. Author keywords are used to explore the co-occurrence of different terms connected to rural non-farm research. Results reveal close and robust interconnections between the top authors, suggesting a solid research link. "Poverty", "Agriculture" "Rural Development", and "non-farm employment" are the keywords the authors most repeatedly use. "World Development" Journal has the highest number of citations (2607) with a total link strength of 172. The United States and India have the highest number of articles in the Rural Non-Farm Sector. This study on Rural Non-Farm would help future researchers gain significant insights into the current status of existing literature and assist in conducting a qualitative literature review.</p> 2024-07-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/849 Career Development and Employee Performance in Public Sector Organizations in Tanzania: A Case of Kondoa District Council 2024-06-29T10:26:43+00:00 Norbert Peter Nyoni norbertnyoni@gmail.com <p>This study aimed to make a thoroughly analysis of the two research variables of Career Development and Employee Performance within the context of Kondoa District Council which is located in the city of Dodoma in Tanzania. The research involved an exploration of HR or Career Development Practices employed within the council and an examination of their real Outcomes in relation to Employee Performance and then generalize the findings in the whole public sector organizations in Tanzania. A mixed-method research approach was utilized with a Case Study Design. The study encompassed the 2 human Resource Managers, 10 Department Heads, 22 Stakeholders and 80 Common Employees as its target population, and hence 57 individuals were included in the sample. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews, which underwent validation and reliability checks. Quantitative data were analyzed Descriptive statistics simplified by using SPSS, while qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis. Ethical considerations were rigorously upheld throughout the study. The findings revealed that the majority of employees acknowledged the importance of training opportunities and perceived training programs as valuable for enhancing their job-related knowledge and skills. The problem that exists is that the management does not implement effectively the Career Development programs in Kondoa District Council to the extent that some of the employees have ignored the importance of this crucial H.R practice called Career Development. The study concludes that Career Development programs initiatives have a positive impact on employee performance, fostering increased job performance, commitment, efficiency, and competence. Therefore, to maximize the benefits of Career Development programs, the study recommends that it is vital to promote a culture of continuous learning and development within the organization and increasing budgetary support for implementation of the public sector organizations. Additionally, streamlining and harmonizing Training and Development Policies and all other regulations related to Career Development. The management must foster high motivation to employees when they present their career planning. Finally, public sector is advised to mitigate bureaucratic contradictions and create an environment conducive to Career Development programs initiatives.</p> 2024-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/840 The Impact of Digital Technology Adoption in Food Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises: A Case Study of Borobudur Area in Indonesia 2024-06-12T10:58:26+00:00 Suci Sandi Wachyuni Tri Kuntoro Priyambodo mastri@ugm.ac.id Ramon Hurdawaty Dewi Ayu Kusumaningrum <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To investigate the awareness of using digital technology in Food MSMEs and understand its benefits.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; This research uses a quantitative approach with hypothesis testing.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The research location is in the Borobudur area, Borobudur District, Magelang Regency, Central Java, one of Indonesia's priority tourist destinations. The duration of the research study is approximately 6 months, from June to December 2023.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This study's dependent or bound variable (Y) is Food MSME's Scaling Up in the Borobudur area. Independent or independent variables (X) are Asset Efficiency (X1), Lower Cost (X2), Quality (X3), and Safety &amp; Sustainability (X4). Data collection was done through surveys, questionnaires, and structured observations. The number of respondents in this study was 145 respondents of local food MSMEs are in the Borobudur area, Borobudur District, Magelang Regency, Central Java. Data is tested with the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS version 3.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results obtained in terms of quality (QT), lower cost (LC), safety, and Sustainability (SAS) were found to have a significant impact on food MSME's scaling up (FMS). However, asset efficiency (AE) was found to have no significant impact on food MSME scaling up (FMS). This research can contribute valuable insights to guide policymakers, industry stakeholders, and MSMEs toward more effective technology adoption strategies that drive growth and resilience in an increasingly digital business landscape.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Quality (QT), Lower Cost (LC), Safety And Sustainability (SAS) were found to have a significant impact on food MSME's scaling up (FMS). However, asset efficiency (AE) was found to have no significant impact on food MSME's scaling up (FMS). Overcoming challenges associated with digital adoption is crucial for these businesses to thrive in a rapidly evolving business landscape.</p> 2024-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/841 Socio-economic Factors Influencing Migrant Labourers in Western Regions of Tanzania: Evidence from Kibondo District, Kigoma Region, Tanzania 2024-06-14T09:41:35+00:00 Lemmy Doreen Nhende Tumaini Gotfried Rwela Yohana James Mgale mgaleyj@gmail.com <p>This study examines the socio-economic factors influencing migrant labourers in Kibondo District, Kigoma Region. The research focuses on exploring their interactions, conflicts, economic relationships, consumer behaviour, skill development, and the socio-economic conditions in both their places of origin and destination. The study specifically investigates male migrants from Burundi with limited education who migrate to Kibondo in search of political stability, job opportunities, and higher wages. A snowball sampling is adopted to recruit 196 respondents to participate in the study. Findings show that the push-pull factors driving migration in the study area are resource endowment, societal status aspirations, job prospects, and economic opportunities in their places of origin. The study identifies various challenges faced by these migrants during their early employment stages, including late wages, health problems, verbal abuse, and wage disputes. Moreover, the research highlights the economic ties maintained by migrants with employers, neighbours, and fellow migrants while noting their limited interaction with the host community. For the post-migration, the study reveals that migrant workers experience increased economic empowerment, manage family expenses, support children’s education, alleviate poverty, and acquire financial skills. However, regular savings pose a challenge. The study underscores the importance of different stakeholder support for the migrants through education and skill development programs, gender-specific support interventions, financial inclusion and literacy, social support networks, diversification of economic opportunities, and policy interventions.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/842 Financial Management in Public Secondary Schools, Arumeru District, Tanzania: An Econometric Case Study 2024-06-14T13:19:28+00:00 Wilson Daniel John wilykadeghe@gmail.com <p>The main purpose of this study was to investigate the skills of heads of schools in managing unit costs for financing students in public secondary schools in the Arumeru District Council. Effective financial management is critical for optimizing the limited resources available to public schools, and the competence of school heads in handling unit costs plays a pivotal role in this regard. The research employs a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews with school heads, teachers, and district education officers. A sample size of 30 heads of secondary schools, 60 secondary school teachers, and 1 district education officers were used in this research. The findings reveal that while some heads of schools demonstrate proficient financial management skills, others lack the necessary expertise, leading to inefficiencies in resource allocation and utilization. Also the study revealed that the head of schools are involved in the process of making budge.&nbsp; However the key factors influencing their financial management skills include professional training, experience, and support from district education authorities. The study underscores the need for targeted professional development programs to enhance the financial management capabilities of school heads. Recommendations include the implementation of continuous training workshops, peer learning opportunities, and stronger support mechanisms from the district education offices. By improving the financial management skills of school heads, public secondary schools in the Tanzania can better allocate resources, thereby enhancing educational outcomes and ensuring sustainable funding mechanisms.</p> 2024-06-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/843 Kitchen Layout Design and Individual Work Performance of Eatery in Davao Del Norte, Philippines 2024-06-17T12:33:04+00:00 Aila Krisiel B. Aparece ailakrisiel@gmail.com Mary Grace T. Ayop Angelica T. Ruz Angelica P. Lazaro <p>This study assessed the level of kitchen layout design and individual work performance in eateries in Davao del Norte, Philippines. A descriptive-correlational research design was employed in this study to determine the relationship between the two variables. The respondents of this study were 207 employees of eateries in Davao del Norte, selected through a simple random sampling technique. Two adapted questionnaires were used, and the statistical tools included mean, Pearson r, and standard deviation. The findings of this study revealed that the level of kitchen layout design in terms of lighting, space or arrangement of kitchen equipment, and type of flooring was very high. The investigation also found that the level of individual work performance in terms of task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior was very high, indicating that these behaviors were always manifest. Additionally, the study found a significant relationship between kitchen layout design and individual work performance, with an r value of 0.781 and a p-value of 0.000. Therefore, it was recommended to select a suitable kitchen layout design in eateries to enhance individual performance and workplace productivity. Future researchers were encouraged to continue exploring the space or arrangement of kitchen equipment to better manage kitchens and develop creative technologies for improved comprehension in these areas. Enhancing the study of task and contextual performance was suggested to emphasize human factor considerations and a holistic approach to boost productivity outcomes.</p> 2024-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/844 Employee Retention Strategies and Job Satisfaction in Local Government Authorities in Tanzania. A case of Tabora Municipal Council 2024-06-17T13:28:27+00:00 Norbert Peter Nyoni norbertnyoni@gmail.com <p>The problem of Job Dissatisfaction among the employees is very common in Tabora Municipal Council that leads to poor performance among the employees. In response to the problem, the current study had the main objective that aimed to assess the impact of employees’ retention strategies towards job satisfaction in Local Government Authorities in Tanzania, Tabora Municipal Council being a case study with three specific objectives namely;&nbsp; to identify Employees’ Retention Strategies available for job Satisfaction in Tabora Municipal Council, to examine the challenges facing the implementation of Employees’ Retention Strategies for Job satisfaction in Tabora Municipal Council as well as to investigate the relationship between Employees’ Retention Strategies and Job Satisfaction in Tabora Municipal Council. The study was guided by the two theories namely;- Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Theory to guide this study effectively. The study employed a mixed method and a case study design. The study involved a sample size of 98 respondents which was the whole entire population with the Purposive Sampling Technique. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. Data analysis methods were descriptive statistics and content analysis. The study findings discovered that there is a need for the organizations of today that need to enter in competitive advantage that they must invest in employees so that to create job satisfaction that in turn leads to good employee performance. The study concluded that the problem of job dissatisfaction has affected many employees particularly from public sector organizations. Thus the government must support these organizations by implementing the existing government policies related to HR Policies. The study recommends policy makers at the Ministry of Public Service and Good Governance to adhere the decentralization by devolution HR policies by allowing the stakeholders to participate fully in the policy formulation process and implementation of the HR Policies which are friendly to employees.</p> 2024-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/845 Village-Owned Enterprise (Bumdes) Samudera Mandiri, Patumbak Subdistrict, Deli Serdang Regency, Indonesia: A Descriptive Case Study 2024-06-18T10:31:53+00:00 Eginta Brando egintabrando78@gmail.com Suwardi Lubis Erika Revida <p>This study aims to analyze the performance of the Village-Owned Enterprise (BUMDes) Samudera Mandiri in improving the income of the Marindal II Village community, Patumbak Subdistrict, Deli Serdang Regency. BUMDes Samudera Mandiri has been operating for eight years, focusing on household waste collection. This research employs a qualitative descriptive method, gathering data through observations, interviews, and document analysis. The findings indicate that the management of BUMDes Samudera Mandiri is effective in meeting four out of five good organizational performance indicators, despite a deficit between revenue and operational costs in 2023. However, BUMDes has not significantly increased community income, having only created ten new jobs. Supporting factors include available resource potential, and support from the village and subdistrict governments and community. Major obstacles are limited budget, low community participation, and lack of human resource competencies. Recommendations for improving BUMDes Samudera Mandiri's performance include increasing business capital, enhancing cooperation with companies through CSR, training for managers, and increasing community socialization and participation in BUMDes programs. These steps are expected to allow BUMDes Samudera Mandiri to contribute more significantly to the welfare of the Marindal II Village community.</p> 2024-06-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/846 Innovation and Business Growth: Personality, Sociological and Environmental Factors in Entrepreneurs 2024-06-24T10:34:51+00:00 I Made Suardana Ni Nyoman Yuliati Putri Reno Kemala Sari putrenoks@gmail.com Hikmah Indah Ariffianti Baiq Desthania Prathama <p>Researchers frequently wonder why some entrepreneurs run small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) more successfully than others and why different SMEs have different survival rates even in the same operational environment. This has resulted in a need to investigate how other factors such as personality, sociology and environtment may mediate relationships between innovations and the growth of SMEs. This research was conducted on entreprenuers in Mataram City. This type of research is quantitative research. The analysis tool uses PLS analysis. It was found that personality has a significant direct and indirect influence on business innovation and business growth at a 10 percent test alpha. The sociological factors have a significant influence on alpha 5.00%, both directly and indirectly on innovation and business growth. Environmental factors are empirically ignored because they do not have a significant direct and indirect influence on business innovation and business growth. The contribution of this study is the clarification of the facts of personality and sociological factor of entrepreneurs and the indication that external environments can impact the business innovation and growth of entreprenuers.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/847 What Influences Someone to have Compulsive Buying Behavior? A Case of Indonesian Migrant Workers in Taiwan 2024-06-24T10:46:09+00:00 Alfato Yusnar Kharismasyah Irawan Randikaparsa irawan.randikaparsa@gmail.com Ali Akbar Anggara Salsabil Auriel <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This research aims to investigate the impact of job burnout on compulsive buying behavior among a group of 210 Indonesian domestic migrant workers in Taiwan. Additionally, it explores the mediating role of ego depletion in this relationship and the moderating effect of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. The study employed a quantitative approach to examine the relationship between job burnout, ego depletion, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence, and compulsive buying behavior among Indonesian domestic migrant workers in Taiwan. The data was analyzed by SEM-PLS. The findings indicate that job burnout significantly increases compulsive buying tendencies among Indonesian domestic migrant workers in Taiwan. However, ego depletion does not act as a mediating factor in this relationship. Conversely, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence moderates the relationship between ego depletion and compulsive buying behavior significantly, suggesting that greater susceptibility weakens the impact of ego depletion on compulsive buying behavior. These results emphasize the importance of addressing job burnout and considering interpersonal influences in interventions aimed at mitigating compulsive buying behaviors among Indonesian domestic migrant workers in Taiwan. Such interventions have the potential to improve the mental and financial well-being of this population.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/850 The Effect of ESG Risk Ratings, Board Size and Gender Diversity on Financial Performance: Econometric Case Study Indonesia 90 Companies 2020-2023 2024-07-01T07:34:44+00:00 Nabil Umar Bayu Wisanggeni Ika Yustina Rahmawati IkaYustinaRahmawati@ump.ac.id <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study examines the influence of ESG Risk Ratings and the size of corporate boards on financial results. Furthermore, It investigates the impact of gender diversity on ESG Risk Ratings, Board Size, and the subsequent impact on Financial Performance.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>In this case study, CFP is variable dependent, ESG and BS is variable independent, GD is the moderating variable, while Dar, LV, GR, and SZ are control variables.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>This study employs panel data from enterprises that meet the purposive sample requirements for the period of 2020-2023.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This study employs EViews 12 statistical software to conduct various tests, including the Descriptive Statistical Test, Model Selection Test, Multicollinearity and Heteroscedasticity Test, and Panel Data Regression Test. This study used purposive sampling method for sample selection. FP evaluated by the ratio of net income to total assets (ROA), ESG obtained from Morningstar Sustainalytics, BS determined by the total number of directors who serve on it, and GD is assessed by calculating the proportion of female board members.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The results of this inquiry indicate that ESG does not have an impact on FP, as demonstrated by the β = 0.0031 and Prob. = 0.3189 value. A different one independent variable, BS, also has no effect on FP, as evidenced by the value of β = 0.0096 and Prob. = 0.2130. As we transition to the moderation variable, it is evident that the GD variable does not moderate the relationship between ESG and FP (β = -0.011, Prob. = 0.3555). Meanwhile, the relationship between BS and FP is weakened by GD (β = -0.058, Prob. = 0.026).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study conclude that financial performance doesn’t influenced by ESG risk ratings and Board size. Beside, gender diversity weakens relationship between ESG and FP. The findings of this study have significant consequences for corporations, as they shed light on the elements that influence a company's financial performance, particularly with regard to sustainability standards. Further research can include variables such as comparison female directors and others.</p> 2024-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/852 Exploring for the Change in Change of Employment Status Over Time 2024-07-09T10:33:38+00:00 Saima Ishaque drsaimaishaque@gmail.com Ahsan-Ul-Haq Satti <p>The study seeks to explore for presence of dissimilar developmental paths in employment status of American individuals. The empirical longitudinal exercise is conducted with hybrid latent class growth model and latent class growth mixtures. For testing the hypothesis of heterogeneous subgroups within employment status data three mainstream modelling variants of growth modelling are tested and elaborated in terms of model performance. Progressive employment status based typology is found robust to alternative model specifications voting for presence of clustered growth patterns in experiencing employment status over time. The resulted employment status based typology describes three clusters of active, inactive and mediocre active participants in terms of moving between various stages of employment status for the age span of 18years to 35 years i.e., from adult to post adult prime working life years. The presented approach to understand and explore employment status is novel perspective compared to classic survey based employment status data.</p> 2024-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/853 Digitalisation, Banking Stability and Nigeria's Economic Growth Trajectory 2024-07-09T12:34:22+00:00 Sunday Enebeli-Uzor sunday.enebeli-uzor@zenithbank.com <p>The integration of digital technologies in banking operations has become a cornerstone of economic policy to promote financial stability and foster economic growth. This study examines the interplay between digitalisation and banking industry stability and economic growth in Nigeria. Annual time series data spanning 1981 to 2022, except for the digitalisation variable (web payment) which covers a shorter period, was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s Statistical Bulletin. Using the Least Squares estimator to analyse the multiple regression model, the study found that digitalisation and financial deepening negatively impact economic growth due to digital prematurity and financial shallowness. However, bank stability and bank assets positively influence economic growth. The study concludes that although digitalisation and financial deepening have the potential to enhance growth, as seen in studies for other nations, Nigeria’s digital maturity level is too low to propel economic growth effectively. Nonetheless, stability in the Nigerian banking industry and bank assets contribute positively to the country’s economic growth trajectory. The study suggests that banks should invest more in digital transformation to foster economic growth. Additionally, banks should provide more credit to private sector and integrate the unbanked population into formal banking processes to enhance financial deepening, which is a key driver of growth in both aspiring and regional peer countries of Nigeria. Finally, banks should continue to build a strong asset base, not only for regulatory purposes but also to leverage large assets for valuation benefits, collateral for loans, risk exposure diversity, competitive advantage, and growth opportunities.</p> 2024-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/854 British Forest Laws in India: Disruption of Ecological Balance, Livelihoods, Traditions and Customs 2024-07-13T11:12:13+00:00 Ms Bhumika Sanjeev Kumar sanjeevcup78@gmail.com <p>The aim of the article is to analyze the British Forest Policy in Colonial India and its impacts comprehensively. Indian States' minimal intrusion into Forests and its inhabitants was breached by the British to the utmost exploitation of Forest Resources as well as its people. The time period of the study includes 19th and 20th century colonial India with special focus on Central India. The Study Design and Methodology used includes reading and analyzing various Primary and Secondary Sources including books, research papers, seminars, National Archives Reports, GIS mapping etc. By all the analysis, one can formulate the Results as such that the British because of their own considerations like Timber procurement and increasing land revenue, started controlling forest resources by prohibiting or banning traditional forest practices by the local people like hunting, shifting cultivation or grazing of cattle by bringing out legislations like The Indian Forest Acts. All these changes led to tempering with Forests like growing Sal, Teak and Deodar instead of local trees, clearing forests for cultivation or developing hunting as a Sport added to the Environmental, Economic and Social woes for Indians although they reaped humongous benefits for the British. The locals tried to protest in various ways but they were either crushed or placated with minimal reforms and if still not succumbed then were branded as Criminal Tribes under draconian Act of Criminal Tribes Act. Thus the colonial State tried to maintain its hegemony by using all means.</p> 2024-07-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/855 The Impact of Work Conflict and Work Stress on Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Motivation 2024-07-15T10:07:31+00:00 Ahmad Baihaqy ahmadbaihaqy@stiesia.ac.id <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study examines the influence of job conflict, work-related stress, and employee motivation on organizational commitment, addressing their critical importance to organizational sustainability and employee commitment levels.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This is a quantitative research study.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Data were collected through surveys from a diverse sample of employees. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied using tools such as SPSS, Partial Least Square (PLS), and the Sobel Test to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings indicate that job conflict directly influences organizational commitment, whereas work stress does not have a direct impact. However, work stress significantly affects employee motivation, which subsequently impacts organizational commitment. Motivation serves as a mediator between job stress and organizational commitment, a relationship not observed with job conflict.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study contributes to the literature by elucidating the complex relationships&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;among job stress, workplace conflict, and motivation, highlighting the mediating role of motivation in the link between job stress and organizational commitment. Future research should consider longitudinal designs and a broader range of industries to enhance the generalizability of these findings.</p> 2024-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/856 The Role of Marketing Strategy for Knit Bag SMEs Businesses Success in the Case of Audy Handmade 2024-07-17T07:16:27+00:00 Wimba Respatia Muhammad Reza Pahlawan mrezapa@stiesia.ac.id Juwita Sari Titik Mildawati <p>Micro, Small, and Medium Enteprises (MSMEs) were known for their contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and work labor absorption. However, they often face a lack of strategic planning, limited funding, and strategy to meet market demands. This can be caused by a lack of marketing strategy formulation. This study aims to provide a descriptive overview of community service from university to empower MSMEs in marketing strategy analysis by conducting an international seminar. This study uses the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method in empowering Audy Handmade. This MSMSe focuses on knit bag production. This study consists of three main activities which initiated by preliminary visit to gain insight into existing problems. The international seminar was also conducted as the next activity to solve their problem. This seminar aims to become a sharing session between the MSMEs and marketing experts to share their conditions and provide feedback from experts to MSMEs. Lastly, there is an evaluation stage to ensure the main goals of the event were achieved. The workshop results in two points that need to be a concern for Audy Handmade. First, they need to produce a bag that can be of unique value for them such as adding some unique element or their logo on the bag. Besides that, they need to reorganize their marketing strategy. They need to focus on some specific marketing segment to help them take a position in the market. A strong brand identity, effective marketing strategies, and attractive product packaging were believed to help improve their products' visibility, competitiveness, and sales in the market. Therefore, Audy Handmade needs to strengthen its brand image, especially its product uniqueness, and its position in certain market segments. This needs to be taken into consideration as a means of strengthening their position in the knit bag industry.</p> 2024-07-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.