South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2581-821X)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJSSE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Economics and Social Studies’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics en-US South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics 2581-821X Development of Donor Profiles to Improve Donor Financing: A Case Study of Sri Lanka https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30311 <p>To strengthen the donor funding, the requesting governments should have a clear idea about the donor agencies, their priority fields and the ways to contact them and communicate with them. For this special purpose, countries are compelled to build up concise formats called “donor profiles” and to distribute this information among health organizations in the country to develop project proposals to fulfil the requirements specified in the profile of the preferred donor to ensure approval and allocation of funding for the requested project.</p> J. L. Himali R. Wijegunasekara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-25 2021-10-25 12 20 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430311 Women Empowerment in Microfinance: Poverty Alleviation Tool https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30324 <p>This article attempts to discuss, how does women empowerment in Sri Lanka could be used as an effective tool to alleviate poverty. Predominantly microfinance was identified as an effective concept to reduce poverty and improve social well-being. The women empowerment is also play a vital part in the process. Microfinance industry has adapted various business strategies and innovative ideas to address and influence poverty reduction. It is acceptable fact that women play a pivotal part in economic development in Sri Lanka. As per the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) stipulated in 2000, women empowerment and gender equality have been identified as one of the main objectives of MDGs to achieve in every country. It is known fact that there has been a strong relationship between microfinance and women. It’s not only women it has a broader relationship mainly in perspective of empowerment. The aim of this paper is to discuss importance of building women empowerment through microfinance by way of substantial in building confidence, courage, skill development and empowerment, and ultimately become an effective poverty alleviating tool. It is very important to focus on Financial, Social dimensions, Government and Regulator support and Environment performances to put microfinance on to track to become a new standard for the microfinance sector by getting effective participation from women sector. Therefore in order to get the real result from these emerging concepts, need women participation for up-tick the microfinance and alleviate poverty.</p> Anurudha Gishan Illangakoon S. M. Ferdous Azam Ali Khatibi Sepali Sudasinghe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-04 2021-12-04 159 172 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430324 The Critical Minimum Effort for Energy Poverty Challenge in India https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30337 <p>The Socio-Economic and Caste Census of 2011 shows the extent of deprivations of rural India. Around 73.4 % of families are residing in rural India, where over 77 million households depend on kerosene for lighting; 1 million use wood and as many as 1.2 million households in India remain completely in the dark. Improvement in - Access, Availability, Adequacy, and Quality of energy can contribute to poverty reduction from various aspects. From a policy-making perspective increasing access to modern energy services require, first, the integration of energy access into national development strategies, and then strong and sustainable financial, institutional, and technology frameworks must be set up. The restatement of the theory of critical minimum effort is to make a plan for the effort that needs to break the environment of inertia of energy poverty. This paper discusses the minimum effort necessary to achieve a steady secular supply of basic energy requirements for people in need. It is alarming fact that today billions of people lack access to the most basic energy services, electricity, and clean cooking facilities, and, worse, this situation is set to change very little over the next 20 years. This paper explains how to set the needed change in the orientation and execution for the service delivery mechanism of energy.</p> <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The restatement of the theory of critical minimum effort as a plan to achieve a steady secular supply of basic energy requirements for people in need.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Descriptive analysis.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Macro-level analysis on India based on Socio-Economic and caste census of 2011.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Review-driven theoretical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Restates those large-scale actions are needed to take people out of the vicious circle of energy poverty.</p> P. Mohammed Shameem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 305 313 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430337 Customers’ Perceived Risk and Attitude towards Adoption of the Digital Banking Services https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30312 <p>Extensive use of technology in the banking sector has redefined the role of a modern banker and banks are not mere purveyors of credit but providers of a number of hi-tech services at the doorsteps of customers anytime, anywhere, and anyhow. The banking industry is currently witnessing healthy competition to adopt new technology. With the advent of Information Technology and its massive application in banking, the delivery of banking services has become more electronic and online. The demand for internet banking (IB) is necessitated by the growing e-commerce transactions and the paradigm shift in banking led by technology. From the perspective of both users and providers‘, IB is cost-effective, quick, and convenient. IB as a medium of delivering banking services is gaining acceptance from customers and is fast catching up in India particularly in Kerala with almost all the banks offering IB services to their customers. Customers are realizing the comfort of accessing banking services from home and as a result, a number of bank customers have already adopted IB or are on the threshold of adopting it. At the same time, we cannot ignore the various kinds of risks hidden in the IB services. Not only the technological factor but also the social, demographic, and even geographical factors also influence us for being digital.</p> <p>As a result of the currency demonetization from 8th November 2016, the demand for digital banking services has been increased. This is mainly because of the unexpected financial crisis that emerged due to currency demonetization. So it led to a new digital revolution in the field of the banking industry. Comparing to conventional banking services digital banking will provide a different experience to its customers. As a result of currency demonetization, many of the consumers were forced to adopt digital banking services. Hence this descriptive study is trying to reveal the great risk perceived by the banking customers in the banking services and the wild adoption of digital banking as a result of currency demonetization by taking samples from state bank of India and Kerala Gramin bank customers. This study sheds light on different aspects of consumers’ perceived risk to analyze the influence of total perceived risk and consumers’ willingness to embrace innovation on digital banking services adoption.</p> Arathi Sivaram E. K. Satheesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-26 2021-10-26 21 28 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430312 Online vs Offline: Experimenting the Belief in Career Exploration Methods of University Students https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30313 <p>The beliefs in career exploration methods varying largely between the online and the offline career exploration methods. Among large pool of career explorers, university undergraduates can be considered as one of the most intense and immature group of explorers. At the same time, it is apparent that students are exploring career opportunities through various methods. Therefore, the primary objective of this research was to find out the beliefs in online and offline exploration methods in university undergraduates and decide the most effective method for career exploration. An experimental model was developed based on Stumpf, Colarelli, &amp; Hartman‘s “Development of the Career Exploration theory. Three treatment groups were formed by the final year university students to denote two main career exploration methods. The sample was selected by randomly assigning an equal number of participants (25). Pre and Post beliefs about each career exploration method were assessed and analyzed to conclude the most effective method. The results found that after the treatment, pre and post believes about career exploration was not been significantly changed by its method. Yet, the amount of information gathered and exploration satisfaction were high in the online method. The respondents never had any systematic or planned way when exploring via online sources. The doubt about reliability of information gathered was high in the offline method. Further, the results revealed that there was no impact of stress and satisfaction for exploration belief. Implications are invited for allocating career exploration awareness for the target group in their early career exploration stages to prepare them for successful career decision making by forward-thinking.</p> D. K. Manodara W. D. N. S. M. Tennakoon W. J. A. J. M. Lasanthika ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-28 2021-10-28 29 40 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430313 Yield Curve and Monetary Policy in Nigeria: Investigating the Predictive Power of the Yield Curve https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30314 <p>This research paper examines the effectiveness of the yield spread in forecasting future economic activity and inflation in Nigeria. Quarterly data on GDP, Open Buy Back (OBB) Nigerian Treasury Bill (NTB), FGN Bond yields and inflation rates from 2010Q1 – 2020Q1 were employed in conducting this study. The Regression Model was used to establish the relationship among the variables of interest; the yield spread (10-year less 3-month bond) was used to predict output and inflation using the Dynamic and Static Forecasting Model. The projected variables, however, depicted co-movement between the actual and the forecasts in most of the periods. Nevertheless, the behavioral movement of the model was dissimilar at some points (2015-2017). Generally, the results indicated a significant predictive power of the yield spread in forecasting economic activities in the future as stipulated in the literature. The paper recommends the validity and use of the predictive information content embedded in the yield spread as a guide or signal for monetary policy actions and decisions.</p> J. B. Tawose K. E. Adedeji K. J. Ajayi A. O. Onah F. Emma-Nwachukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-30 2021-10-30 41 54 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430314 Cultural Arts Tourism Business during the COVID-19 Pandemic (Case Study: Saung Mang Udjo, West Java, Indonesia) https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30315 <p>During a pandemic, the priority is the need for security from exposure to the virus. However, although safety is a particular concern, the fulfillment of psychological needs (recreation) must still be considered with various forms of entertainment. One of them is art entertainment or art tourism. Performing arts and culture tourism can be a recreational selection with a memorable impression and is also useful for cultural learning. An angklung music performance that is popular in Indonesia is Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU), Saung which means small house, angklung is a traditional bamboo musical instrument from West Java and Udjo is the name of the owner. The appropriate business strategy is required to survive in the slump during the pandemic. The study aimed to determine the strategy of performing arts and cultural performances in Saung Mang Udjo, West Java, during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study used a qualitative method with a Literature review model exploring detailed information from SAU management. Data collection by in-depth interviews, observations, and documentation were performed online. The study object is Saung Mang Udjo (SAU), Bandung, West Java. The study was performed from March-to April 2021. The results obtained show that the business strategy applied by SAU management combines a cost leadership strategy and a differentiation strategy. It provides different, unique, and modern products without leaving the attractive concept of traditional Indonesian culture, which consumers like at the lowest possible competitive prices. It also implements health protocol policies, following a special certification for tourism businesses, i.e., (CHSE) Cleanliness, Health, Safety, Environment Sustainability. A product differentiation strategy should emphasize the creativity of SAU management in making various kinds of innovative products during the pandemic that are interesting and fun, supported by friendly, skilled, insightful employees, which are more attractive to consumers than other competing products. Online marketing is prioritized during the pandemic by utilizing various media platforms.</p> Rella Dwi Respati Dewi Ayu Kusumaningrum Gabriella Fefany Jakaria ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 55 68 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430315 Constraints Faced by the Farmers in Practicing Coping Strategies towards Household Food Security during Flood https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30316 <p>A study was carried out at each of three flood affected reverine villages of three upazilas (small administrative unit) under Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during September, 2011 to May, 2012 to find out the constraints faced by farmers in practicing coping strategies towards household food security during flood. The qualitative information as obtained from the focus group discussion (FGD) and scored causal diagrams (SCDs) were used to supplement the quantitative data to add new information if necessary in descriptive manner. Priority of constraints are differ from one farmer to another due to cultivated land topography, involvement of family labour in cultivation processes, precautionary measures taken against flood, previous experience, prediction of flood damage etc. ‘Lack of appropriate agricultural rehabilitation program’, ‘improper and inadequate relief distributed by GO/NGO’, ‘high price of agricultural inputs’ and ‘lack of technical knowledge on flood’ were identified as major constraints being faced by farmers in practicing flood coping strategy towards household food security. Lack of flood resistance crop varieties, inadequate organizational (GO/NGO) relief in time, lack of credit, agricultural labour and quality seeds in time (after flood) were found major constraints by almost all categories of farmers for overcoming food crisis created by the whim of nature. Go and NGO can take necessary steps against this adverse situations.</p> M. E. Haque M. N. Islam M. R. Islam M. M. Haque M. A. Majid J. Tasnim M. A. Rahman M. J. Alam M. Y. Uddin K. M. Rahman M. A. Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 69 77 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430316 Impact of Demonetization and Goods and Services Tax (GST) on India’s Economic Growth: A Critical Review https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30317 <p>India’s economic growth has been affected by the sudden withdrawal of currency notes from the circulation and hasty implementation of GST (Goods and Services Tax) in the economy. Demonetization not only pull-down the economic growth but also paralyzing the informal sector and small-scale sector of the economy. The Industrial output cracked and services growth slowdown and eventually the economic growth start declining.&nbsp; Demonetization harm each area of the economy such as the real estate sector, health care industry, the wedding industry and travel industry. On the other hand, the implementation of GST is affecting every sector of the economy and its supply chain too.</p> <p>This paper tries to highlight the cost and benefits bear by the economy due to the twin strokes of Demonetization and implementation of the GST. The paper also tries to find out the expected rate of growth of the economy after the Demonetization and GST. Finally, the study tries to conclude that how it would be disrupted and benefits the economy in the long run.</p> Jamil Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-08 2021-11-08 78 87 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430317 The Determinants of Online Stock Investment in Malaysia: A Case in Early Phase of COVID-19 Pandemic https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30318 <p>The purpose of this research is to determine the factors that affect the behavioral intention of Malaysians individuals to adopt online stock trading. The primary data is collected with the help of structured questionnaire from 285 participants in the study who are current or potential investors in the Malaysian stock market. The online surveys were distributed from the last quarter of 2019 to the first quarter of 2020. This study uses the structured and self-administered online questionnaire survey tool to collect the primary data from samples. Non-probability convenient sampling method was employed and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) is adopted. The results indicate that all constructs, namely performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI) and facilitating conditions (FC) have a direct significant positive relationship toward behavioral intention. In addition, the study shows that PE is the most important factor in determining individuals’ behavioral intention in adopting online stock trading. In conclusion, online stock trading system developer should focus on designing the additional useful features and ensuring the quality of the information to satisfy the demands and desires of the general public and to build features such as prompting traders to avoid the possibility of over trading or with feature enabling users to backtrack and test their trading strategies and to customize different types of analysis to help users making informed investment decisions.</p> Tan Yong-Da Teoh Teng-Tenk, Melissa Lee Teck-Heang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-11 2021-11-11 88 105 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430318 Effects of Remittances on Income Inequality in Bangladesh: A Macroeconomic Analysis https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30320 <p>This study attempts to examine the effects of remittances on income inequality in Bangladesh over the period of 1990 to 2016. The study period has been chosen based on data availability at macro level. To serve the purpose, Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration technique is applied since unit root test confirms a combination of variables some which are stationary at level and others become stationary after first difference. The error correction model estimated by reparametrizing the ARDL model after having confirmation about the existence of long run relationship through bound test. An inverted U-shaped relationship between the remittances and income inequality has been found by the study. Remittances increase income inequality in short run and decrease income inequality in the long run.&nbsp; In the long run an increase in remittances by 1 per cent reduces the income inequality by 11 per cent on an average. The adjustment coefficient has the expected negative sign at 1 per cent level of significance which ensure a monotonically convergent adjustment towards the equilibrium with the speed of 21.65 per cent. Among other control variables, private credit increases income inequality in the long run and decrease it in the short run. Exchange rate and inflation either have very negligible effects or no significant effects both in short run and in long run. Based on the findings, it could be suggested that the country should take proper steps to encourage investment of remittances in productive activities to accumulate capital which could ensure the path of accruing the beneficial impacts of remittances on income inequality in the long run.</p> Hazera-Tun -Nessa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 106 118 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430320 Personality, Group Thinking and Cohesiveness as Predictor of Criminal Behavior among Adolescents https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30321 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Group thinking, cohesiveness and Personality characteristics as predictors of Criminal Behaviour. The population comprises of Three Hundred (300) students through stratified sampling technique from institutions in Ekiti State was used. A questionnaire was designed using a descriptive research design for data collection. The data was collected using questionnaire. Three hypotheses were tested in total and they are: there will be a significant relationship between group thinking, cohesiveness, personality characteristics and criminal behavior; Personality Characteristics will significantly predict criminal behavior; Group thinking and cohesiveness will have main and interaction influence on criminal behaviour; the first hypothesis was tested using regression analysis and found that there is a positive and significant relationship between criminal behaviour and group thinking with r = .194, p&lt;0.05 and there is a negative but significant relationship between personality characteristics and group cohesiveness with r = -.123, p&lt;0.05. the second hypothesid was tested using linear regression analysis and found that that F (299) = .000, p &gt; 0.05 significant level and the hypothesis rejected. The thirds hypothesis was tested using one way ANOVA analysis showed that group thinking has an influence on criminal behaviour among adolescents, F(299) = 5.768, p&lt;0.05, group cohesiveness does not have a significant influence on criminal behaviour of adolescents, F(299) = 2.124, p&gt;0.05. the results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literature, conclusion and recommendation. The study concluded that group thinking is a major predictor of criminal behaviour among adolescents, while group cohesiveness and personality characteristics do not influence criminal behaviour among adolescents. It was recommended that there is need of adequate sensitization of adolescents on the negative consequences criminal behavior and how it can affect their future if not curtailed, Government should organize empowerment for the youth, so that it can reduce criminal act and the government introduces or organize seminar to the adolescents, to teach them how to behave in the society.</p> Arowosegbe, Christianah Kehinde Bankole Emmanuel Temitope Ajayi Olubukola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-20 2021-11-20 119 130 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430321 Capital Flight and Unemployment Rate in Nigeria https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30322 <p>This study examined Capital Flight and unemployment rate in Nigeria. Capital flight was proxied by foreign direct investment abroad, external debt servicing, external reserves and capital and financial account deficits. Based on study objectives, relevant literatures were reviewed and evaluated. Relevant data were extracted from the annual Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Bureau of Statistics. Unit root test was conducted using Augmented Dickey Fuller method which revealed that the variables were integrated at level and first difference necessitating the use of autoregressive distributive lag/bond test to explore the long run relationship existing among the variables in the model and the result showed that the variables in the model were co-integrated thus we proceeded in evaluating the long run as well as the co-integrating form in the model. From the result of the various tests, it was revealed capital flight did not actually increase unemployment rate in Nigeria within the periods studied by the researchers. Based on the findings from the analysis, the study recommended amongst others, that external debt acquired should be judiciously used for infrastructural development that would encourage investments which would ultimately bring about economic growth as well as enhance human development in Nigeria.</p> Emmanuel Uzoma Makwe Augustus N. Gbosi Clever A. Gbanador ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 131 147 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430322 A Review of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education in India https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30323 <p>It is evidenced that country which has a large number of the educated and skilled labour force has a higher potential to lead others in economic development. So, it can be said that the education increases the productivity of the population in general and of the labour force in particular, leading to increase in individual earnings or wages and as a result, contributing to economic growth. Secondary and higher secondary educated population as a labour force are trainable and adjusted as the requirements of the world-wide market. Secondary education now is the single largest provider of working people in all spheres of national productivity. This paper highlights the growth of secondary and higher secondary education of the country and examines the current problems and challenges related to secondary educational system in India. It has been found that the total number of students enrolled in and gross enrolment ratio of secondary education and higher secondary education reflect increasing trends over the period. It is found that there has been an improvement in gender parity, particularly at concerned education level shown by GPI. Although, the progress has been made in the secondary and higher secondary sector of education, the rate of progress does not correspond with the pace of requirement.</p> Shahid Kaleem S. M. Jawed Akhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-03 2021-12-03 148 158 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430323 Hypotheses Testing: Capital Flight and Human Development Index in Nigeria https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30325 <p>This study examined Capital Flight and human development index in Nigerian. Capital Flight was proxied by foreign direct investment abroad, external debt servicing, external reserves and capital and financial account deficits. Based on the study objectives, relevant literature were reviewed and evaluated. Relevant data were extracted from the annual Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Bureau of Statistics. Unit root test was conducted using Augmented Dickey Fuller method which revealed that the variables were integrated at level and first difference: necessitating the use of autoregressive distributive lag/bonds test to explore the long run relationship existing among the variables in the model and the result showed that the variables in the model were co-integrated thus we proceeded in evaluating the long run as well as the co-integrating form in the model. From the result of the various tests, it was revealed that capital and financial account deficit, external debt servicing and external reserve were positively related to human development index while foreign direct investment outflows was negatively related to human development index. Also, capital and financial account deficit, external reserve and foreign direct investment outflow were significant while external debt servicing was not significant. Based on the findings from the analysis, the study recommended amongst others, that external debt acquired should be judiciously used for infrastructural development that would encourage investments which would ultimately bring about economic growth as well as enhance human development in Nigeria.</p> Emmanuel Uzoma Makwe Augustus N. Gbosi Clever A. Gbanador ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-04 2021-12-04 173 190 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430325 Value Chain Analysis of Namgang Chilli: The Produce of Pakshikha, Chukha, Bhutan https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30326 <p>Chilli is the most ubiquitous spice used in Bhutanese cuisine. Almost all dishes in Bhutan contain chillies in various forms. Bhutan produces many variants of chilli, one of which is Namgang chilli. Commonly known for being one of the hottest and tastiest variants in Bhutan, it is cultivated in Pakshikha, Bongo Gewog, Chukha. This study is aimed at identifying value chain actors of Namgang chilli, their roles, margins, and mapping out its overall value chain. The quantitative and qualitative data for this study were&nbsp;obtained from 29 of the 49 Namgang chilli-cultivating&nbsp;households in Pakshikha. Other published sources were also referred for gathering secondary data required for this study. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and chain mapping was performed to identify actors and their supply linkages. Margin analysis was conducted to assess the value gained by each player in the value chain. The identified actors of the value chain were input suppliers, farmers, transporters, retailers, and consumers. Farmers, retailers, and transporters share 53.6, 28.7, and 5 percentage of the margin respectively. Some of the critical constraints and challenges faced by farmers are rising pest infestation; lack of awareness about modern tools and techniques; lack of agency support; lack of motivation and encouragement for mass commercial farming; no initiative for organizing farmers’ cooperative/group; and ack of crop protection mechanism. The findings suggest that the overall value chain of Namgang chilli is underdeveloped. Therefore, relevant agencies should intervene and encourage farmers to form groups/cooperatives for Namgang chilli cultivation. The chilli farmers could be provided with technical supports in the form of knowledge and training to improve efficiency in the production and marketing of the commodity.</p> Khem Prasad Gautam Rajnish Ratna Keshar Nath Dhakal Hita Nath Dhakal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-07 2021-12-07 191 205 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430326 Resource Based Conflict and Climate Change in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30327 <p>The study examined the effects of climate change on the local economy occasioned by resource-based conflict in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. The alteration in weather conditions in the Niger Delta region is associated with anthropogenic activities of the transnational oil companies for over five decades in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Despite the degree of oil exploration and exploitation, the Niger Delta region remained underdeveloped in social amenities. The inhabitants were deprived and alienated from the Petrodollar benefits. The launching of artisanal refining by the locals as a way of getting from Petro Dollar business became inevitable. These activities have increased greenhouse gas emission leading to the alteration in weather conditions in the Region Sadly, the Joint Military Task Force deployed to monitor and arrest culprit bombard and burn down the artisanal refining equipment unprofessionally, thereby increasing greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere. Given the above, the Niger Delta inhabitants are experiencing alteration in weather condition leading to poor agricultural harvest.&nbsp; The study adopted Frustration/Aggression theoretical as its framework. The study relied on primary through questionnaires and interview, while secondary sources data was through journals, books, newspapers, among others. The study unraveled that resource-based conflict occasioned deprivation and frustration increased greenhouse gas emission. The study recommends amongst others convening a climate change summit that will involve all the stakeholders in the oil activities in the Region.</p> Eziho Promise Ogele ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-07 2021-12-07 206 216 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430327 How Does FinTech Affect Consumer Non-cash Payment Satisfaction? The Moderating Role of Financial Knowledge https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30329 <p>As the merger of innovations from developing financial services for the twenty-first century, FinTech has brought payment methods into a new and electronic era, and non-cash payment is gradually becoming the mainstream for transaction activities. This study empirically investigates the effects of FinTech on consumer non-cash payment satisfaction, and the moderating role of financial knowledge is examined as well. Utilizing the data from the China Household Finance Survey in 2017, the results indicate that the use of FinTech can significantly promote consumer satisfaction towards non-cash payment. The mechanism analysis specific to the moderating role also shows that financial knowledge positively contributes to the impacts of FinTech on consumer non-cash payment satisfaction. The findings of this study imply that financial service providers are recommended to promote their facilities to meet consumers’ increasing demand for financial services. Besides, consumers should also take the initiative to improve their financial knowledge to better integrate non-cash payment into life and enjoy the satisfaction brought by FinTech.</p> Fuzhong Chen Xiaoyan Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 217 231 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430329 Customers' Perception and Satisfaction towards E-Banking Service in Yemen and Its Quality https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30330 <p>Providing quality e-banking services helps banks to achieve customer satisfaction, which in turn affects banks' overall financial performance. Therefore, there is need for banks to monitor the quality of the e-banking services they provide. The present study is a quantitative descriptive study intended to measure the level of customer perception and satisfactions towards e-banking service in Yemen and its quality (i.e, overall e-banking service quality as well as the quality of its dimensions: website design, reliability/fulfillment, privacy/security and customer service). The sample included 454 respondents drawn from the population of customers of Yemeni banks that provide e-banking service. The tool of data collection was questionnaire developed by the researchers. The study revealed that the level of customer perception and satisfactions towards e-banking service in Yemen was moderate, and the overall e-banking service quality as well as the quality of its dimensions (website design, reliability/fulfillment, privacy/security and customer service) was also moderate.</p> Mohammed M. H. Qasabah Abbokar Siddiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-13 2021-12-13 232 241 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430330 Does Financial Deepening Cause Liquidity Problems for Banks? Evidence from Nigeria https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30331 <p>Attempt to facilitate economic growth makes the Central Banks to formulate monetary policies that seek to deepen the provision of financial resources to target sectors. Since Banks are the main channels through which monetary policies are executed, we attempted to examine whether financial deepening cause liquidity problem among Nigerian banks in this study. We employed time series analytical techniques to analyze selected financial deepening indicators and data for banking system liquidity between 1981 and 2019. The financial deepening variables used include of broad money to the gross domestic product (GDP) ratio; credit to private sector to the GDP ratio; ratio of commercial banks liabilities to the GDP; financial sector contribution to the GDP and ratio of market capitalization to the GDP. On the other hand, the liquidity of the banking system is proxy by its loan/deposit ratio for the period under study. We estimated the statistical properties of the variables examined and conducted some pre-estimation tests (stationarity and co-integration) to ascertain choice estimation techniques. We used a vector error correction mechanism to investigate long and short-run effects of financial deepening on Nigerian banking system liquidity. Both the long run vector autoregressive (VAR) and the short run and vector error correction (VEC) models results showed that there is a positive but statistically insignificant relationship between banking system liquidity and financial deepening variables. In addition, the results of the Granger causality between the dependent and independent variables revealed that there exists no causal relationship between the liquidity of the banking system and financial deepening. These findings imply that financial deepening did not impair banks’ liquidity position in Nigeria during the years under review. The study concluded that financial deepening does not cause liquidity problem for banks in Nigeria; rather, if well managed, can have positive effect on it. In the light of this, the study recommends that banks should re-strategize in the implementation of financial deepening policies that are liquidity friendly and that the Central Bank of Nigeria, should formulate policies that will not only focus on credit and loan beneficiaries, but also on the banks.</p> Kayode, Peter Akinyemi Ajayi, David Adelagun Awosusi, Charles Temitope ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 242 257 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430331 An Analysis of Reported Crime against Women and Girls in Eastern India https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30332 <p>Crimes against women and girls have been increasing in recent years as reported by the National Crime Records Bureau. It becomes a serious social evil worldwide. The study has been tried to find out the trend of crimes against women for the period of the last ten years (2010-2019) in the states of eastern India i.e. Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. The study has been based on secondary data from the National Crime Records Bureau, Govt of India. The data have been extracted and analyzed to get the status of crimes in particular categories. The crime records of Bihar show an increasing rate of women assault cases. Jharkhand data shows that indecent representation of women has increased in recent years. In West Bengal Cruelty by husband is the most reported crime in West Bengal and it is also observed that rape cases were decreased in West Bengal continuously in the last ten years. It has been found that Orissa and Bihar are significantly high in crimes like women assault on the internet, an insult to the modesty of women, kidnapping and rape comparing other states of study. Cruelty by husbands and cases under the immoral traffic act had significantly higher in West Bengal compared to other states under study. The Dowry death and kidnapping and abduction are significantly high in Bihar. The different levels of crimes against women in different states not only indicates the status of women in the society and the law and order situations of that state but also it is a reflection of the socio-psychological aspects. Proper implementation of laws along with awareness of related issues, along with continuous monitoring can play a crucial role to minimize the overall crime scenario.</p> Rituparna Paul Arunasis Goswami Biswajit Pal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-14 2021-12-14 258 264 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430332 Establishing an Autonomous Village through Bumdes (Village-Owned Enterprise) to Enhance Local Economic Activity https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30333 <p>Rural development has become major focus in Indonesia’s development plan. Especially in term of village development which aimed to build self-reliance, to increase socio-economic capacity, and to empower the community. One of the government’s missions is to develop rural areas by optimizing the economic potential of a village to increase its productivity and the diversity of existing businesses. Furthermore, to improve the availability of infrastructure and facilities, to support the rural economy institutions, to support the production effectivity and marketing strategy in order to improve the economic growth. This study aims to explore the role of BUMDES in Jongbiru Village, Kediri Regency, East Java Province, Indonesia in order to optimise the local economic potential. This study used a descriptive qualitative approach which conducted in Jongbiru Village, Gampengrejo, Kediri Regency. The data collection used in-depth interviews with key informants, documentation, and observations on the research subjects. The key informants included in this research such as the chief of village, BUMDES Manager, and business actors in Jongbiru Village. Moreover, this research used source triangulation to make sure all data collected is valid and reliable. The findings show that intervention is needed to create a BUMDES that plays more effective roles on supporting village development. Moreover, community participation (i.e.: small medium enterprises owner) is crucial to develop the welfare of local. Further, last but not least, measurable and feasible planning are needed to support a village to be resilient and autonomous.</p> Imam Mukhlis Magistyo Purboyo Priambodo Ahmad Fawaiq Suwanan Isnawati Hidayah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 265 273 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430333 Revealing Readiness and Obstacles for Implementation of Financial Accounting Standards Msmes in Indonesia https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30334 <p>This study aims to analyze the readiness and constraints of MSMEs in Indonesia in preparing financial reports in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards MSMES. This study uses a sample data of 271 MSME respondents throughout Indonesia. The sampling technique of this study was accidental sampling by calculating the number of samples using a sample size calculator on www.raosoft.com with consideration of a margin of error of 5%, a level of confidence of 90% and an expected response of 95 %. This study uses descriptive qualitative and quantitative analysis by providing interpretation of data obtained from questions in interviews and questionnaires. The results of an analysis showed that 217 respondents or 80% of respondents had no knowledge of Financial Accounting Standards MSMEs. This shows that SMEs in Indonesia are not ready to implement Financial Accounting Standards MSMEs.</p> Hetika . Arifia Yasmin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 274 284 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430334 Do Quality Standards Affect the Growth of the Fisheries Sector in Cameroon? https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30335 <p>This article aim’s to assess the effect of quality standards on the growth of the fisheries sector in Cameroon. Cobb-Douglas function, the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) estimation method and the stationary test (Augmented Dicky Fuller and Phillip Perron tests) were employed. In the light of the results obtained, we noted that in the short term, the quality standards are negatively and significantly correlated with the growth of the fisheries sector in Cameroon, but in the long term, we observed a positive correlation. Indeed, a 10% strengthening of quality standards is accompanied by a decrease in the growth of the Cameroonian fisheries sector of about 8.61%. Faced with the demanding nature of quality standards and with a view to making the fisheries sector efficient and attractive in the long term, we recommend that the public authorities implement a national strategy based on effective and relevant management of human and financial resources, aimed at supporting fisher folk on one hand, and on the other hand, improving the quality of institutions.</p> Eric Brice Fosso Ngatsi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 285 293 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430335 Between Instagrammable Attraction and Selfie Tourist: Characteristic and Behavior https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30338 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aims to identify and analyze the characteristics of instagrammable attractions and selfie tourist behavior.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The method used in this research is descriptive quantitative. The survey was conducted by adopting a non-probability sampling technique involving 104 respondents. The distribution of questionnaires and observations were carried out for two weeks at the Lembang Floating Market.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study found that most tourist attractions can be categorized as instagrammable attractions. While selfie tourists strongly consider the availability of unique and current attractions, for the purpose of documenting and sharing their experiences through photos or videos on their Instagram accounts. Therefore, this study concludes that instagrammable attraction has a positive and significant effect on attracting selfie tourists. Especially because the characteristics of instagrammable attractions that "perfectly impress" are able to attract selfie tourists who have travel motives and behavior to seek existence and recognition on social media, especially Instagram.</p> <p><strong>Implication/Applications:</strong> The results of this study are able to provide comprehensive information related to selfie tourist behavior that is beneficial for stakeholders, especially travel agents and tourist destination managers.</p> <p><strong>The Originality of the Study:</strong> The limitation of this research is the data collection method which is dominated by surveys. Therefore, further research is expected to conduct an in-depth study related to the reasons tourists are interested in selfie tourism.</p> Subur Karyatun Suryono Efendi Ramang H. Demolingo Kadek Wiweka Ayu Pramestya Putri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 314 324 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430338 Women Entrepreneurships’ Development in Imo State, Nigeria, Challenges and Prospects https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30339 <p>Empirical studies have found that developing countries are mostly affected by the whims of gender discrimination particularly against the women in their quest to be involveld in entrepreneurship activities and other economic ventures. Hence , the need to study Women Entrepreneurships’ Development in Imo State, Nigeria; Challenges and Prospects. Four hundred and fifty (450) women entrepreneurs from Imo State Nigeria were randomly selected from the list of registered women entrepreneurs in the three geopolitical zones of Imo State. A likert scale responses on questionnaire and rating scales were used to obtain the required data for the study. It deployed descriptive statistics and regression analysis for hypotheses testing. Findings reveal that, challenges (CHA) exerted significant negative influence on the women entrepreneurship development (WED) in Imo State, Nigeria. On the other hand, prospects (PRO) is a positive and significant function of WED. Results also reveal that, discriminatory laws and regulations (DLR) (with mean rank of 5.21) happens to be the highest challenge to women entrepreneurship in Imo State. While innovation (INNO) (with mean rank of 7.49) represents the highest Prospects for women entrepreneurship in Imo State. The study concluded that, the strength in the identified prospects will help curtail the gender biases in favour of the women. In all, dismantling of the discriminatory laws and regulations against women will produce the ultimate objective of economic growth and development. Consequently, the future of women entrepreneurship in Imo State, lies in those identified prospects. It recommended that government deliberate support programmes targeting the female folk will aid women entrepreneurship development. Thus, the more increase in participation by females in entrepreneurial activity will provide the required trajectory for development.</p> Chikodiri Festa Ofomata ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 325 337 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430339 ASEAN Economic Community (AEC): An Empirical Impact Analysis https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30340 <p>Regional Economic Integration is considered the most powerful method of ensuring productivity and attaining economic prosperity. ASEAN Economic Community established to achieve one vision, one identity, and one community is one of Asia's most promising regional economic integration. It aims to emerge as a leading integrated economy in the world. To establish this community, ASEAN adopted Blueprint-2015 in 2007; after implementing the community, it enhanced this blueprint and adopted Blueprint-2025 in 2015. The Blueprint-2025 mentioned five characteristics as the target for ASEAN Economic Community to be undertaken for 2016-2025. Besides, the blueprint also mentioned some significant elements associated with the characteristics. This study focused on the empirical analysis of these characteristics of Blueprint-2025. Therefore, this work used the data of the ten ASEAN countries from 2010 to 2019 by selecting some indicators representing the elements of these characteristics. The finding of this analysis suggested that a large number of the indicators have experienced a decent level of progress, whereas only a few failed to achieve the expected trend.</p> Tahsin Binta Anis Mohammad Mamun Md. Mizanur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-21 2021-12-21 338 353 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430340 Excess Volatility in the Tunisian Stock Market: Explanation by Behavioral Finance https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30310 <p>In this paper, we tried to show the existence of excess volatility of stock prices in the Tunisian stock exchange during the period 2000 - 2017, by applying the variance bounds of Shiller. We used data on daily closing prices and the transaction volume of 22 companies listed on Tunisian Financial market during the period 2016/2017 to identify the relationship between over confidence bias and the Excess Volatility via the Granger causality test. Based on Chuang and Lee’s approach, we studied the effect of the excess confidence component on volatility by the E-GARCH Model (1.1). Our results show that high market volatility resulted from overconfident investors.</p> Dhouha Hadidane Chkioua ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-23 2021-10-23 1 11 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430310 Asuu Strike and the Nigerian Governments: Implications on Students and Society in a Changing World https://journalsajsse.com/index.php/SAJSSE/article/view/30336 <p>The impasse between the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) and the governments in Nigeria (state and federal) manifested in a repeated ASUU strikes, having implications on students and society in the contemporary changing world. Hence the study examines the adverse impacts of the strikes on university students and the society that embodies the stakeholders. The study discovered that the strikes are orchestrated largely by the union quest to protect its members’ welfare and swift greeting of any perceived unfriendly steps by the government with strike actions while the government fell short in funding and entrenching a right legal milieu for negotiation and regulation of ASUU. With the secondary sourced data from journals, newspapers, journals, books and the internet while underpinning the research with the social contract theory, the study concludes that the public university students are exposed and tempted to indulge in social vices, have a sense of being disadvantaged unlike their private colleagues, and the society developmental agenda is threatened because of the poor quality of graduates produced from the Ivory Tower. It recommends that government and ASUU should renegotiate their agreements while the former should also ramp up the budgetary funding allocation to the University amongst others.</p> Ekene Celestina Chukwudi Samuel Sunday Idowu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 294 304 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i430336