South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics</strong>&nbsp;<strong>(ISSN: 2581-821X)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/SAJSSE/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Economics and Social Studies’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics) (South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics) Sat, 23 Oct 2021 13:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Development of Donor Profiles to Improve Donor Financing: A Case Study of Sri Lanka <p>To strengthen the donor funding, the requesting governments should have a clear idea about the donor agencies, their priority fields and the ways to contact them and communicate with them. For this special purpose, countries are compelled to build up concise formats called “donor profiles” and to distribute this information among health organizations in the country to develop project proposals to fulfil the requirements specified in the profile of the preferred donor to ensure approval and allocation of funding for the requested project.</p> J. L. Himali R. Wijegunasekara ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Women Empowerment in Microfinance: Poverty Alleviation Tool <p>This article attempts to discuss, how does women empowerment in Sri Lanka could be used as an effective tool to alleviate poverty. Predominantly microfinance was identified as an effective concept to reduce poverty and improve social well-being. The women empowerment is also play a vital part in the process. Microfinance industry has adapted various business strategies and innovative ideas to address and influence poverty reduction. It is acceptable fact that women play a pivotal part in economic development in Sri Lanka. As per the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) stipulated in 2000, women empowerment and gender equality have been identified as one of the main objectives of MDGs to achieve in every country. It is known fact that there has been a strong relationship between microfinance and women. It’s not only women it has a broader relationship mainly in perspective of empowerment. The aim of this paper is to discuss importance of building women empowerment through microfinance by way of substantial in building confidence, courage, skill development and empowerment, and ultimately become an effective poverty alleviating tool. It is very important to focus on Financial, Social dimensions, Government and Regulator support and Environment performances to put microfinance on to track to become a new standard for the microfinance sector by getting effective participation from women sector. Therefore in order to get the real result from these emerging concepts, need women participation for up-tick the microfinance and alleviate poverty.</p> Anurudha Gishan Illangakoon, S. M. Ferdous Azam, Ali Khatibi, Sepali Sudasinghe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 04 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Customers’ Perceived Risk and Attitude towards Adoption of the Digital Banking Services <p>Extensive use of technology in the banking sector has redefined the role of a modern banker and banks are not mere purveyors of credit but providers of a number of hi-tech services at the doorsteps of customers anytime, anywhere, and anyhow. The banking industry is currently witnessing healthy competition to adopt new technology. With the advent of Information Technology and its massive application in banking, the delivery of banking services has become more electronic and online. The demand for internet banking (IB) is necessitated by the growing e-commerce transactions and the paradigm shift in banking led by technology. From the perspective of both users and providers‘, IB is cost-effective, quick, and convenient. IB as a medium of delivering banking services is gaining acceptance from customers and is fast catching up in India particularly in Kerala with almost all the banks offering IB services to their customers. Customers are realizing the comfort of accessing banking services from home and as a result, a number of bank customers have already adopted IB or are on the threshold of adopting it. At the same time, we cannot ignore the various kinds of risks hidden in the IB services. Not only the technological factor but also the social, demographic, and even geographical factors also influence us for being digital.</p> <p>As a result of the currency demonetization from 8th November 2016, the demand for digital banking services has been increased. This is mainly because of the unexpected financial crisis that emerged due to currency demonetization. So it led to a new digital revolution in the field of the banking industry. Comparing to conventional banking services digital banking will provide a different experience to its customers. As a result of currency demonetization, many of the consumers were forced to adopt digital banking services. Hence this descriptive study is trying to reveal the great risk perceived by the banking customers in the banking services and the wild adoption of digital banking as a result of currency demonetization by taking samples from state bank of India and Kerala Gramin bank customers. This study sheds light on different aspects of consumers’ perceived risk to analyze the influence of total perceived risk and consumers’ willingness to embrace innovation on digital banking services adoption.</p> Arathi Sivaram, E. K. Satheesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Online vs Offline: Experimenting the Belief in Career Exploration Methods of University Students <p>The beliefs in career exploration methods varying largely between the online and the offline career exploration methods. Among large pool of career explorers, university undergraduates can be considered as one of the most intense and immature group of explorers. At the same time, it is apparent that students are exploring career opportunities through various methods. Therefore, the primary objective of this research was to find out the beliefs in online and offline exploration methods in university undergraduates and decide the most effective method for career exploration. An experimental model was developed based on Stumpf, Colarelli, &amp; Hartman‘s “Development of the Career Exploration theory. Three treatment groups were formed by the final year university students to denote two main career exploration methods. The sample was selected by randomly assigning an equal number of participants (25). Pre and Post beliefs about each career exploration method were assessed and analyzed to conclude the most effective method. The results found that after the treatment, pre and post believes about career exploration was not been significantly changed by its method. Yet, the amount of information gathered and exploration satisfaction were high in the online method. The respondents never had any systematic or planned way when exploring via online sources. The doubt about reliability of information gathered was high in the offline method. Further, the results revealed that there was no impact of stress and satisfaction for exploration belief. Implications are invited for allocating career exploration awareness for the target group in their early career exploration stages to prepare them for successful career decision making by forward-thinking.</p> D. K. Manodara, W. D. N. S. M. Tennakoon, W. J. A. J. M. Lasanthika ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Yield Curve and Monetary Policy in Nigeria: Investigating the Predictive Power of the Yield Curve <p>This research paper examines the effectiveness of the yield spread in forecasting future economic activity and inflation in Nigeria. Quarterly data on GDP, Open Buy Back (OBB) Nigerian Treasury Bill (NTB), FGN Bond yields and inflation rates from 2010Q1 – 2020Q1 were employed in conducting this study. The Regression Model was used to establish the relationship among the variables of interest; the yield spread (10-year less 3-month bond) was used to predict output and inflation using the Dynamic and Static Forecasting Model. The projected variables, however, depicted co-movement between the actual and the forecasts in most of the periods. Nevertheless, the behavioral movement of the model was dissimilar at some points (2015-2017). Generally, the results indicated a significant predictive power of the yield spread in forecasting economic activities in the future as stipulated in the literature. The paper recommends the validity and use of the predictive information content embedded in the yield spread as a guide or signal for monetary policy actions and decisions.</p> J. B. Tawose, K. E. Adedeji, K. J. Ajayi, A. O. Onah, F. Emma-Nwachukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 30 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural Arts Tourism Business during the COVID-19 Pandemic (Case Study: Saung Mang Udjo, West Java, Indonesia) <p>During a pandemic, the priority is the need for security from exposure to the virus. However, although safety is a particular concern, the fulfillment of psychological needs (recreation) must still be considered with various forms of entertainment. One of them is art entertainment or art tourism. Performing arts and culture tourism can be a recreational selection with a memorable impression and is also useful for cultural learning. An angklung music performance that is popular in Indonesia is Saung Angklung Udjo (SAU), Saung which means small house, angklung is a traditional bamboo musical instrument from West Java and Udjo is the name of the owner. The appropriate business strategy is required to survive in the slump during the pandemic. The study aimed to determine the strategy of performing arts and cultural performances in Saung Mang Udjo, West Java, during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study used a qualitative method with a Literature review model exploring detailed information from SAU management. Data collection by in-depth interviews, observations, and documentation were performed online. The study object is Saung Mang Udjo (SAU), Bandung, West Java. The study was performed from March-to April 2021. The results obtained show that the business strategy applied by SAU management combines a cost leadership strategy and a differentiation strategy. It provides different, unique, and modern products without leaving the attractive concept of traditional Indonesian culture, which consumers like at the lowest possible competitive prices. It also implements health protocol policies, following a special certification for tourism businesses, i.e., (CHSE) Cleanliness, Health, Safety, Environment Sustainability. A product differentiation strategy should emphasize the creativity of SAU management in making various kinds of innovative products during the pandemic that are interesting and fun, supported by friendly, skilled, insightful employees, which are more attractive to consumers than other competing products. Online marketing is prioritized during the pandemic by utilizing various media platforms.</p> Rella Dwi Respati, Dewi Ayu Kusumaningrum, Gabriella Fefany Jakaria ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Constraints Faced by the Farmers in Practicing Coping Strategies towards Household Food Security during Flood <p>A study was carried out at each of three flood affected reverine villages of three upazilas (small administrative unit) under Jamalpur district in Bangladesh during September, 2011 to May, 2012 to find out the constraints faced by farmers in practicing coping strategies towards household food security during flood. The qualitative information as obtained from the focus group discussion (FGD) and scored causal diagrams (SCDs) were used to supplement the quantitative data to add new information if necessary in descriptive manner. Priority of constraints are differ from one farmer to another due to cultivated land topography, involvement of family labour in cultivation processes, precautionary measures taken against flood, previous experience, prediction of flood damage etc. ‘Lack of appropriate agricultural rehabilitation program’, ‘improper and inadequate relief distributed by GO/NGO’, ‘high price of agricultural inputs’ and ‘lack of technical knowledge on flood’ were identified as major constraints being faced by farmers in practicing flood coping strategy towards household food security. Lack of flood resistance crop varieties, inadequate organizational (GO/NGO) relief in time, lack of credit, agricultural labour and quality seeds in time (after flood) were found major constraints by almost all categories of farmers for overcoming food crisis created by the whim of nature. Go and NGO can take necessary steps against this adverse situations.</p> M. E. Haque, M. N. Islam, M. R. Islam, M. M. Haque, M. A. Majid, J. Tasnim, M. A. Rahman, M. J. Alam, M. Y. Uddin, K. M. Rahman, M. A. Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Demonetization and Goods and Services Tax (GST) on India’s Economic Growth: A Critical Review <p>India’s economic growth has been affected by the sudden withdrawal of currency notes from the circulation and hasty implementation of GST (Goods and Services Tax) in the economy. Demonetization not only pull-down the economic growth but also paralyzing the informal sector and small-scale sector of the economy. The Industrial output cracked and services growth slowdown and eventually the economic growth start declining.&nbsp; Demonetization harm each area of the economy such as the real estate sector, health care industry, the wedding industry and travel industry. On the other hand, the implementation of GST is affecting every sector of the economy and its supply chain too.</p> <p>This paper tries to highlight the cost and benefits bear by the economy due to the twin strokes of Demonetization and implementation of the GST. The paper also tries to find out the expected rate of growth of the economy after the Demonetization and GST. Finally, the study tries to conclude that how it would be disrupted and benefits the economy in the long run.</p> Jamil Ahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 08 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Determinants of Online Stock Investment in Malaysia: A Case in Early Phase of COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The purpose of this research is to determine the factors that affect the behavioral intention of Malaysians individuals to adopt online stock trading. The primary data is collected with the help of structured questionnaire from 285 participants in the study who are current or potential investors in the Malaysian stock market. The online surveys were distributed from the last quarter of 2019 to the first quarter of 2020. This study uses the structured and self-administered online questionnaire survey tool to collect the primary data from samples. Non-probability convenient sampling method was employed and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) is adopted. The results indicate that all constructs, namely performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI) and facilitating conditions (FC) have a direct significant positive relationship toward behavioral intention. In addition, the study shows that PE is the most important factor in determining individuals’ behavioral intention in adopting online stock trading. In conclusion, online stock trading system developer should focus on designing the additional useful features and ensuring the quality of the information to satisfy the demands and desires of the general public and to build features such as prompting traders to avoid the possibility of over trading or with feature enabling users to backtrack and test their trading strategies and to customize different types of analysis to help users making informed investment decisions.</p> Tan Yong-Da, Teoh Teng-Tenk, Melissa, Lee Teck-Heang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Remittances on Income Inequality in Bangladesh: A Macroeconomic Analysis <p>This study attempts to examine the effects of remittances on income inequality in Bangladesh over the period of 1990 to 2016. The study period has been chosen based on data availability at macro level. To serve the purpose, Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration technique is applied since unit root test confirms a combination of variables some which are stationary at level and others become stationary after first difference. The error correction model estimated by reparametrizing the ARDL model after having confirmation about the existence of long run relationship through bound test. An inverted U-shaped relationship between the remittances and income inequality has been found by the study. Remittances increase income inequality in short run and decrease income inequality in the long run.&nbsp; In the long run an increase in remittances by 1 per cent reduces the income inequality by 11 per cent on an average. The adjustment coefficient has the expected negative sign at 1 per cent level of significance which ensure a monotonically convergent adjustment towards the equilibrium with the speed of 21.65 per cent. Among other control variables, private credit increases income inequality in the long run and decrease it in the short run. Exchange rate and inflation either have very negligible effects or no significant effects both in short run and in long run. Based on the findings, it could be suggested that the country should take proper steps to encourage investment of remittances in productive activities to accumulate capital which could ensure the path of accruing the beneficial impacts of remittances on income inequality in the long run.</p> Hazera-Tun -Nessa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Personality, Group Thinking and Cohesiveness as Predictor of Criminal Behavior among Adolescents <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Group thinking, cohesiveness and Personality characteristics as predictors of Criminal Behaviour. The population comprises of Three Hundred (300) students through stratified sampling technique from institutions in Ekiti State was used. A questionnaire was designed using a descriptive research design for data collection. The data was collected using questionnaire. Three hypotheses were tested in total and they are: there will be a significant relationship between group thinking, cohesiveness, personality characteristics and criminal behavior; Personality Characteristics will significantly predict criminal behavior; Group thinking and cohesiveness will have main and interaction influence on criminal behaviour; the first hypothesis was tested using regression analysis and found that there is a positive and significant relationship between criminal behaviour and group thinking with r = .194, p&lt;0.05 and there is a negative but significant relationship between personality characteristics and group cohesiveness with r = -.123, p&lt;0.05. the second hypothesid was tested using linear regression analysis and found that that F (299) = .000, p &gt; 0.05 significant level and the hypothesis rejected. The thirds hypothesis was tested using one way ANOVA analysis showed that group thinking has an influence on criminal behaviour among adolescents, F(299) = 5.768, p&lt;0.05, group cohesiveness does not have a significant influence on criminal behaviour of adolescents, F(299) = 2.124, p&gt;0.05. the results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literature, conclusion and recommendation. The study concluded that group thinking is a major predictor of criminal behaviour among adolescents, while group cohesiveness and personality characteristics do not influence criminal behaviour among adolescents. It was recommended that there is need of adequate sensitization of adolescents on the negative consequences criminal behavior and how it can affect their future if not curtailed, Government should organize empowerment for the youth, so that it can reduce criminal act and the government introduces or organize seminar to the adolescents, to teach them how to behave in the society.</p> Arowosegbe, Christianah Kehinde, Bankole Emmanuel Temitope, Ajayi Olubukola ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 20 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Capital Flight and Unemployment Rate in Nigeria <p>This study examined Capital Flight and unemployment rate in Nigeria. Capital flight was proxied by foreign direct investment abroad, external debt servicing, external reserves and capital and financial account deficits. Based on study objectives, relevant literatures were reviewed and evaluated. Relevant data were extracted from the annual Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Bureau of Statistics. Unit root test was conducted using Augmented Dickey Fuller method which revealed that the variables were integrated at level and first difference necessitating the use of autoregressive distributive lag/bond test to explore the long run relationship existing among the variables in the model and the result showed that the variables in the model were co-integrated thus we proceeded in evaluating the long run as well as the co-integrating form in the model. From the result of the various tests, it was revealed capital flight did not actually increase unemployment rate in Nigeria within the periods studied by the researchers. Based on the findings from the analysis, the study recommended amongst others, that external debt acquired should be judiciously used for infrastructural development that would encourage investments which would ultimately bring about economic growth as well as enhance human development in Nigeria.</p> Emmanuel Uzoma Makwe, Augustus N. Gbosi, Clever A. Gbanador ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Review of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education in India <p>It is evidenced that country which has a large number of the educated and skilled labour force has a higher potential to lead others in economic development. So, it can be said that the education increases the productivity of the population in general and of the labour force in particular, leading to increase in individual earnings or wages and as a result, contributing to economic growth. Secondary and higher secondary educated population as a labour force are trainable and adjusted as the requirements of the world-wide market. Secondary education now is the single largest provider of working people in all spheres of national productivity. This paper highlights the growth of secondary and higher secondary education of the country and examines the current problems and challenges related to secondary educational system in India. It has been found that the total number of students enrolled in and gross enrolment ratio of secondary education and higher secondary education reflect increasing trends over the period. It is found that there has been an improvement in gender parity, particularly at concerned education level shown by GPI. Although, the progress has been made in the secondary and higher secondary sector of education, the rate of progress does not correspond with the pace of requirement.</p> Shahid Kaleem, S. M. Jawed Akhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hypotheses Testing: Capital Flight and Human Development Index in Nigeria <p>This study examined Capital Flight and human development index in Nigerian. Capital Flight was proxied by foreign direct investment abroad, external debt servicing, external reserves and capital and financial account deficits. Based on the study objectives, relevant literature were reviewed and evaluated. Relevant data were extracted from the annual Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Bureau of Statistics. Unit root test was conducted using Augmented Dickey Fuller method which revealed that the variables were integrated at level and first difference: necessitating the use of autoregressive distributive lag/bonds test to explore the long run relationship existing among the variables in the model and the result showed that the variables in the model were co-integrated thus we proceeded in evaluating the long run as well as the co-integrating form in the model. From the result of the various tests, it was revealed that capital and financial account deficit, external debt servicing and external reserve were positively related to human development index while foreign direct investment outflows was negatively related to human development index. Also, capital and financial account deficit, external reserve and foreign direct investment outflow were significant while external debt servicing was not significant. Based on the findings from the analysis, the study recommended amongst others, that external debt acquired should be judiciously used for infrastructural development that would encourage investments which would ultimately bring about economic growth as well as enhance human development in Nigeria.</p> Emmanuel Uzoma Makwe, Augustus N. Gbosi, Clever A. Gbanador ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 04 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Value Chain Analysis of Namgang Chilli: The Produce of Pakshikha, Chukha, Bhutan <p>Chilli is the most ubiquitous spice used in Bhutanese cuisine. Almost all dishes in Bhutan contain chillies in various forms. Bhutan produces many variants of chillies, one of which is Namgang chilli. Commonly known for being one of the hottest and tastiest variants in Bhutan, it is cultivated in Pakshikha, Bongo Gewog, Chukha. This study is aimed at identifying value chain actors of Namgang chilli, their roles, margins, and mapping out its overall value chain. The quantitative and qualitative data for this study were&nbsp;obtained from 29 of the 49 Namgang chilli-cultivating&nbsp;households in Pakshikha. Other published sources were also referred for gathering secondary data required for this study. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and chain mapping was performed to identify actors and their supply linkages. Margin analysis was conducted to assess the value gained by each player in the value chain. The identified actors of the value chain were input suppliers, farmers, transporters, retailers, and consumers. Farmers, retailers, and transporters share 53.6, 28.7, and 5 percentage of the margin respectively. Some of the critical constraints and challenges faced by farmers are rising pest infestation; lack of awareness about modern tools and techniques; lack of agency support; lack of motivation and encouragement for mass commercial farming; no initiative for organizing farmers’ cooperative/group; and ack of crop protection mechanism. The findings suggest that the overall value chain of Namgang chilli is underdeveloped. Therefore, relevant agencies should intervene and encourage farmers to form groups/cooperatives for Namgang chilli cultivation. The chilli farmers could be provided with technical supports in the form of knowledge and training to improve efficiency in the production and marketing of the commodity.</p> Khem Prasad Gautam, Rajnish Ratna, Keshar Nath Dhakal, Hita Nath Dhakal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Resource Based Conflict and Climate Change in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria <p>The study examined the effects of climate change on the local economy occasioned by resource-based conflict in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. The alteration in weather conditions in the Niger Delta region is associated with anthropogenic activities of the transnational oil companies for over five decades in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Despite the degree of oil exploration and exploitation, the Niger Delta region remained underdeveloped in social amenities. The inhabitants were deprived and alienated from the Petrodollar benefits. The launching of artisanal refining by the locals as a way of getting from Petro Dollar business became inevitable. These activities have increased greenhouse gas emission leading to the alteration in weather conditions in the Region Sadly, the Joint Military Task Force deployed to monitor and arrest culprit bombard and burn down the artisanal refining equipment unprofessionally, thereby increasing greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere. Given the above, the Niger Delta inhabitants are experiencing alteration in weather condition leading to poor agricultural harvest.&nbsp; The study adopted Frustration/Aggression theoretical as its framework. The study relied on primary through questionnaires and interview, while secondary sources data was through journals, books, newspapers, among others. The study unraveled that resource-based conflict occasioned deprivation and frustration increased greenhouse gas emission. The study recommends amongst others convening a climate change summit that will involve all the stakeholders in the oil activities in the Region.</p> Ogele Eziho Promise ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 07 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Excess Volatility in the Tunisian Stock Market: Explanation by Behavioral Finance <p>In this paper, we tried to show the existence of excess volatility of stock prices in the Tunisian stock exchange during the period 2000 - 2017, by applying the variance bounds of Shiller. We used data on daily closing prices and the transaction volume of 22 companies listed on Tunisian Financial market during the period 2016/2017 to identify the relationship between over confidence bias and the Excess Volatility via the Granger causality test. Based on Chuang and Lee’s approach, we studied the effect of the excess confidence component on volatility by the E-GARCH Model (1.1). Our results show that high market volatility resulted from overconfident investors.</p> Dhouha Hadidane Chkioua ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000