Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Policy Related to Teacher Retention in the Rural Primary Schools of Chhukha, Bhutan

. Tshering, Dawa Phuntsho

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Volume 16, Issue 1, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2022/v16i1599

Teachers’ attrition rate keeps rising every year and has been observed that mostly teachers from rural and remote parts of the country choose to resign voluntarily or go on long term leave. Teacher’s attrition rate in 2018 is 4.4% and it has risen up to 5.2% in 2019 which is a serious concern to be looked at. Recruitment and retention of teachers in the remote and rural schools remains a significant challenge in low-income countries, including Bhutan, hampering the educational delivery services to the rural population and slows the progress of achieving Sustainable Development Goals.

For delivering quality educational services to the people and improving their outcomes, motivated teachers must be available at the right time and place. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting teacher retention in the rural areas of Chhukha District based on policy and practice. A total of five domains were assessed regarding financial matters, career matters, personal and family matters, working and living conditions, and policy matters. In the past decade, there have been worrying signs that the intellectual quality of teachers is declining. Teachers who are already in schools and are highly qualified may be able to offset this trend if they are retained.

In order to better understand the key factors influencing rural schools' appeal and retention of teachers, this study was conducted. A satisfaction survey was also conducted to determine if their current place of employment offered them the policies, facilities, services, and support that they were seeking. In order to attract or retain teachers in remote and rural schools, the study findings, recommendations, and appropriate strategies were provided to relevant stakeholders for intervention. Therefore, more motivated teachers are available in remote Bhutanese regions. Consequently, teaching services will be of a higher quality. Gross National Happiness can ultimately be achieved by achieving this goal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teachers’ Perception on the Implementation of New National School Curriculum in Pachu Primary School

Nima Dorji

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Volume 16, Issue 1, Page 11-15
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2022/v16i1600

According to the definition from the Oxford languages, perception is the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. The other definitions draws the intent of my work closer which states, the way in which something is regarded,understood,or interpreted. It is of utmost significant that the perception of what we are actually required to do must be clear to us and must be able to interpret critically. However, there is possibility of our teachers delivering the curriculum with no proper understanding and direction in some cases. The Instructional Guides (IG) launched by ministry of education in 2022,which discourages full use of textbooks triggered some reservations in the minds of the teachers.Therefore, this study aims to explore the actual perception of the teachers on the implementation of the new national school curriculum in one of the remote primary schools, Pachu Primary School. Teachers do have number of issues to share on the implementation of the new national school curriculum from different perspectives. The study is optimistic to provide clearer picture of what the teachers are experiencing in the real field.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Marketing Channels and Marketing Efficiency of Apple Growers in Kashmir (J&K), India

Shallu Sehgal, Mukesh Kumar

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Volume 16, Issue 1, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2022/v16i1601

Analysis of marketing channel and marketing efficiency is an important tool through which one can understand the how different marketing channels and marketing intermediaries can influence the returns received by producers and price paid by consumers. The present paper discusses the marketing channels, marketing efficiency, marketing cost and marketing margin in Jammu & Kashmir through which the apple move from producer to consumer. Study reveals that channel-I in Baramulla, Channel-II in Kupwara and Shopian is popular among the farmers because most of the sample apple growers sell their produce through these channels. It has been observed that larger the number of intermediaries between producers and consumers lead to higher marketing cost and vice-versa. The analyses reveal that Channel-II has the highest marketing cost. Lower the marketing cost, higher will be the marketing efficiency and vice-versa. Further, results observes that in Jammu & Kashmir Channel-V is more efficient than any other channel because of absence of middlemen between producer and consumer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Self-help Groups (SHGs) in Enhancing Incomes of Rural Women in J&K, India

Shamim Ahemad, Om Raj Katoch

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Volume 16, Issue 1, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2022/v16i1602

Women are the most vulnerable section of our society and their agony in Jammu and Kashmir is more intensified during the last three decades due to prevailing militancy. They work round the clock but lack decision making powers in household affairs as well as in the society. The central and state government has launched several schemes for women empowerment and National Rural Livelihood Mission is one among them. Under this self-employment scheme, the rural women are organized in Self Help Groups (SHGs) and are provided funds for their upliftment. To understand the success in the performance of Jammu & Kashmir Rural Livelihood Mission (JKSRLM) in terms of enhancing income of the women, a total of 80 beneficiaries selected through multi-stage sampling were interviewed by giving equal weightage to two districts of Doda and Jammu respectively. The results reflected that SHGs have played a significant role in the life of rural women in terms of enhancing income and employment. The JKSRLM is a great tool for concerted efforts to improve the economic conditions of the people, and the importance of education must not be overstated, since it influences the choices women and girls make about employment and income generation increasingly.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Interlinkages among Exchange Rate and Stock Price for India

Kirti Sanwal, Saba Ismail

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Volume 16, Issue 1, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2022/v16i1603

This paper is an attempt to examine the empirical relation between exchange rate and Indian stock price using the monthly time series data over the period 2011-2021. Johansen’s cointegration test has been applied to test the long run relationship between exchange rate and stock price. Both the trace and Maximum Eigenvalue test statistic are less than the 0.05 critical values. Thus, the null hypothesis of no cointegration is accepted and no long run stable equilibrium relation was found to exist between exchange rate and stock price. The analysis further reveals the prevalence of unidirectional causal relationship from stock price to exchange rate by employing the Granger causality test. Thus, the study is found to support the Stock oriented model. So, regulators can predict the trends in exchange rate from the past values of stock prices which can induce profitable trading in the currency market. This study would be of immense importance for various stakeholders like investors, practitioners and policy makers to reduce the information symmetry owing to the volatile nature of the two variables.