Open Access Original Research Article

Identifying Factors Affecting to Retailer-manufacturer Relationship Continuity Special Reference to Cosmetics Market in Kandy District

S. M. K. M. M. Samarathunga, Shamini Newton

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2018/v1i225776

Aims: A key issue in the field of relationship marketing is developing and sustaining relationship continuity. By this study retailers and manufacturers can recognize the factors that effect on their relationships and those findings can use to meet their desired relational benefits. The main purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting to retailer-manufacturer relationship continuity among cosmetic market in Kandy district.

Study Design: The descriptive survey design and cross sectional analysis were used to analyse the data.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was based on individual retailers who retail cosmetics products in Kandy district identified as the sampling element of the research. Research was conducted from August 2017 to February 2018.

Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 250 cosmetic product retailers. Convenience sampling method was used. The descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data.

Results: The results revealed that significant positive impact exist between Trust, Commitment & Adaptation on Retailer-manufacturer Relationship continuity. According to the findings of this study, cosmetic manufacturers should remain focused on establish their relationship continuity with their manufacturer by maintaining better trust, commitment and adaptation strategies and also  it leads to gain better positive outcomes.

Conclusion: Therefore it is reasonable to conclude that Retailer-manufacturer Relationship continuity can be created, reinforced and retained by developing Trust, Commitment & Adaptation strategies between Retailer-manufacturer.

Open Access Original Research Article

External Debt and Economic Growth of Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

S. Sajuyigbe, Ademola, A. Odetayo, Tajudeen, Z. Adeyemi, Adewumi

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2018/v1i225780

The study investigates the impact of external debt on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1999-2015. The data for this study was obtained mainly from secondary sources mainly from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletins and Debt Management Office. Time series data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a proxy for Economic Growth, External Debt Stock (EXDS), External Debt Service Payment (EDSP), and Exchange Rate (EXGR) were used for the analysis. The techniques of Estimation employed in the study include Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, Johansen Co-integration, Vector Error Correction Mechanism and Granger Causality Test. Results show that external debt has an inverse effect on economic growth in Nigeria. Subsequently, the study recommends that government should empower Debt Management Office to set the mechanism in place, ensure that loans are utilised for purposes they are meant for and prosecute corrupt public officers who siphoned the money.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Dynamics of Oil Prices in the Nigerian Construction and Economic Growth

Peter Uchenna Okoye, Evelyn Ndifreke Igbo

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2018/v1i225782

Aims: The continuous reverberation of unstable global oil price change has caused this study to examine the effect of oil price fluctuation on the construction and economic growths in Nigeria.

Study Design: Data for the analysis were extracted from different National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) publications on the construction sector and economy (GDP); and OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin 2017 and BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2017 on oil price from 1981 to 2016.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in Nigeria between October 2017 and February 2018.

Methodology: The study applied different econometric techniques including the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), the generalized least squares (GLS) regression (DF-GLS), and the Phillips-Perron (PP)  for unit root test; Johansen’s cointegration test and Error Correction Model (ECM) for long-run equilibrium relationship; Granger causality test for direction of causation or influence; as well as carrying different validation tests.

Results: It was found that oil price fluctuation does not have any causal influence on the construction growth nor economic growth; rather it is only the economic growth that influences the construction growth without feedback. It further revealed the existence of unstable long-run equilibrium contemporaneous relationship between the variables. It showed that the deviation from the equilibrium level in the current year will be corrected by 8.8% in the following year and that it will take about 11 years and 4 months to restore the long-run equilibrium state on the economic growth should there be any shock from the construction growth and oil prices fluctuation in the system.

Conclusion: The study concluded that though construction sector and general economy may be sensitive to the oil price change, their growth cannot be said to have been influenced or caused by the fluctuation in oil prices. On this strength, the subsisting oil price position in determining the economic trends in Nigeria is challenged. It then calls for new thoughts and strategies towards monitoring the oil prices and economic growth in Nigeria which may culminate in paying less attention to oil price changes and focusing more on other economic variables that trigger changes in the economy and development of Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Opportunities and Constraints in Ghana’s Informal Sector (A Case Study of Ho Township)

Agbede Philip Sunday, Muddey Komla Donne

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2018/v1i225783

Aims: To determine the opportunities, and constraints in Ghana’s informal sector by examining the structure of the informal sector, identifying the factors influencing people to work in the sector and to determine the salient factors constraining the growth of the informal sector.

Study Design: A descriptive research design

Place and Duration of Study: Ho Municipal, Volta Region Ghana, between September 2014 and June 2015.

Methodology: This study employed both probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling techniques to select 310 informal sector workers in Ho township, a self-administered close-ended questionnaire was used as the instrument of data collection. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was the main statistical tool used in the study.

Results: The EFA showed that five salient factors accounted for about 70.2% of the total variation in the 12 original constraining indicators, when it comes to the structure, about 71% of businesses are practiced on a microscale sole proprietorship level.

Conclusion: Evidence from the study suggests that; The desire to make more money and the freedom associated with being in the informal sector are the most alluring opportunities found to motivate people to work in the sector. Five main challenges are encountered by workers in Ghana’s informal sector, and they are; lack of resources and business viability, constraining government regulations/policies, inadequate entrepreneurial skills, lack of start-up capital and lack of job security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Ownership and Land Management System in Chars: A Study in Sariakandi Upazila under Bogura District of Bangladesh

A. K. M. Zakaria, Rebeka Sultana, Md. Al Mamun, Md. Menhajul Alam

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2018/v1i225787

Bangladesh is an agricultural country. Her Per capita land in comparison to the number of people is very insignificant and hence the management of land system holds a vital role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Scarce land and  the  rapid  increase  of population  of  the  country are creating high pressure over land-man ratio. The present land management system undergone a long process and is not fully computerized.  A research was conducted in four villages namely Nayapara, Karamjapara, Dighapara and Karnibari of Hatsherpur union of Sariakandi upazila under Bogura district to know the land ownership of the residents of the chars and to review the existing land management system in chars. It was found that most of the peoples (98%) in chars live in leased land areas who take lease from land owner. Half of the respondents of the study are fully satisfied with the service of the Surveyor. The inhabitants of the char, lacking resources and capital to generate new income take loans from local money lenders in high interest. More than two-third people (71%) opined that there is no land related conflict. Women in the char areas are becoming empowered by increasing their income by involving in agricultural activities. Farmers expect training on different aspects of agriculture like seed technology, livestock rearing etc. Land Information  System (LIS) may be the  most  accountable  and  feasible  systematic approach  for developing  an  up-to-date  land  administration  and  management.