Open Access Original Research Article

Analyzing the Determinants of Tourists’ Buying Behaviour in Sri Lanka: With Special Reference to Tourism Destinations in Down South of Sri Lanka

N. P. Ravindra Deyshappriya, A. A. Idroos, U. G. O. Sammani

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2019/v4i330130

Aims: This study models tourists’ buying behavior in Sri Lanka analyzing key determinants of tourists’ buying behavior along with demographic characteristics of the tourists. The study focuses on how Marketing Mix Factors, Situational Factors and Personal Factors and other demographic factors affect tourist buying behavior in three tourist destinations in Down-South of Sri Lanka.

Methodology: Data were collected from 500 tourists who visited three main tourist destinations such as Hikkaduwa, Unawatuna and Mirissa located in Down-South of Sri Lanka. Both descriptive and econometric analyses were employed to accomplish the objectives of the study.

Results: The results of the descriptive analysis suggest that most of the tourists were from countries such as Russia, Germany and United Kingdom and their main purpose of the visits were recreation and leisure followed by education and health. Moreover, the respondents stayed 20 days on average in Down-South. However, it was observed that tourists’ spending per day is significantly low and more than 69% of the tourists spent less than 100$ per day. The econometric findings emphasize that all three key determinants of consumer buying behaviour– marketing mix factors, situational factors and personal factors positively affect the tourists’ buying behavior. Apart from that, personal factors have been recognized as the most influential factor of tourists’ buying behavior in the context of Sri Lanka. Furthermore, demographic characteristics of tourists such as gender, marital status, education level and employment status also affect tourist buying behavior.

Conclusion: Hence, appropriate policies are required to enhance the quality of all indicators of the marketing mix, situational factors and personal factors in order to increase tourists’ buying behavior. Similarly, the current study also recommends the implementation of efficient policies to ensure security, cultural harmony and political stability in order to uplift tourists’ buying behavior pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mixed-method Evaluation of Perceived Approach and Criteria of Employees Retrenchment in Selected Commercial Banks in Southwest, Nigeria

Emem Bassey Inyang, William Okon Williams

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2019/v4i430131

Ever since post consolidation era, retrenchment in the Nigerian banking sector is prominent and even alarming. This paper adopted a mixed method technique to evaluate the dimensions of retrenchment approach and criteria used by banks’ employers in determining employees to be retrenched and extent of fairness perceived by the surviving employees. The study was anchored on organizational justice theory. Four banks - two each from the old generation bank and new generation commercial banks in southwest Nigeria were selected for the study. The sample size comprised 256 survivors selected through the triangulation of purposive and simple random sampling techniques, while questionnaire and in-depth interviews (IDIs) were used to gather data. The quantitative data were analyzed using frequency percentage distribution, cross tabulation, and content analysis for qualitative data. Findings revealed the new generation banks - Access and Eco banks and even UBA Plc. among old generation bank adopted reactionary approach, thus retrenching their workers arbitrarily without prior or adequate notice. In retrenching employees, the banks combined many criteria, but the most commonly criterion used to evaluate employees’ productivity was performance appraisal system; for instance, 100% of survivors in NGB and 98.4% in OGB accepted the use of performance appraisal, however 74.2% in NGB perceived the outcomes were subjective and unfair. The study concludes that banks’ management have treated their employees in unfair manners during retrenchment, thus survivors have manifested high level of perceived injustice in the system. It recommended top management to applyfairness during retrenchment and treat survivors in a fairly manner. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Key Locational Characteristics that Influence on Attracting Tourists to Sri Lanka

O. K. R. de Silva, M. P. S. R. Perera, G. D. D. T. Karunarathne

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2019/v4i430132

This research was conducted to assess the existing locational characteristics of Sri Lanka which could influence on attracting tourists to the country. The major problem of the study is identifying the critical locational characteristics that cause to attract more tourists to Sri Lanka. It has been observed that there are three major locational characteristics such as Natural attractiveness, Cultural attractiveness and Climate which have discussed by the scholars and applicable to the Sri Lankan context. The main objective of the study is to identify the most important characteristics which help to attract tourists to Sri Lanka. The secondary objectives are determining the impact of the influence of the characteristics on tourist attraction & exploring the influence of the characteristics for future tourist attraction. The research coverage areas are Colombo District and Hikkaduwa Narigama area. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. The findings are based on the primary data collection and, they have been analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 and the SmartPLS (Partial Least Square) 3.0. There were 62 sample size and whole sample responded for the questionnaire. Findings of the study exposed all three characteristics are important for tourist attraction. According to the result of Path Coefficient, all the three variables are statistically significant and natural attractiveness (0.454), cultural attractiveness (0.247) and climate (0.213) are a significant moderately strong relationship with tourist attraction. Therefore, all three variables positively impact to the tourist attraction and natural attractiveness is the major among them. It is also found that there are specific things to be taken into account for the accomplishment of attracting the expected group of tourists to the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Public Participatory Role in Urban Flood Risk Management of Ho Chi Minh City - Vietnam: From Awareness to Action

Pham Thi Anh, Nguyen Thi Bao Ngoc

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2019/v4i430133

Urban flooding has become a regular phenomenon in many towns and cities in the world over the past years. Flooding in urban areas in Ho Chi Minh City poses serious challenges not only by affecting large numbers of people and properties in urban areas but also directly hindering the economic growth of the city. Despite the huge technical effort to improve the city's drainage system, which is necessitated by phenomenal growth of the city and the challenges of climate change and land subsidence, it is impossible to put and end to flooding. The human factor appears an important element in the flooding problem and the efforts of flood reduction. In this study the emphasis was laid on the issue of inappropriate garbage disposal which leads to obstruction of drainage systems. As a part of a well-planned strategy an interactive survey was conducted in about 820 households in flooding areas. The survey focused on awareness and behavior of public garbage disposal of households living in flooded areas. People have an understanding of the causes of flooding, and have a sense of environmental protection, they can contribute to reducing flooding. In addition to technological solutions, community awareness, solutions for management and sanctioning are necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Corporate Social Responsibility Related Activities of Different Company for Building Brands from Customer Perspectives in Nepal

Manoj Kumar Thapa Magar, Ramanand Pandit, Ayuska Parajuli, Ashok Pandey

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2019/v4i430134

Aims: The purpose of this study is to explore the consciousness of customers of different company on awareness of corporate social responsibility related activities of the different companies for building brands in Nepal. 

Study Design: A quantitative methodology in the form of statistical analysis of the results was derived from the responses of a customer on to find out how CSR activities can be used in building brands in the different product used in Nepal.

Place and Duration of Study: A total of 452 consumers from various sites of Kathmandu valley from June 2018 to January 2019.

Methodology: This research applied a quantitative methodology using a survey questionnaire. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires distributed to public people who were using different products of Kathmandu Nepal. Convenience sampling was used in the distribution of the survey.

Results: The majority (40%) of the participants strongly agreed on giving values to female employees. Majority of the participants were agreed on different forms of CSR health activities done by the companies on affecting a branding.

Conclusion: Working on CSR social/community service, ethical CSR activities, CSR health activities and CSR environmental activities shall improve brand reputation.