Open Access Original Research Article

Composite Index of Inclusive Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Inclusion of the Informal Sector

Omang Ombolo Messono, Nsoga Nsoga Mermoz Homère III

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2020/v6i230161

This paper aims to provide a composite index of inclusive growth in 32 sub-Saharan African countries between 1995 and 2014 by taking into account the importance of the informal sector. Following the principal component analysis methods, we find specifically that except for countries such as Djibouti, Burkina Faso, Mauritius, Nigeria and Zimbabwe, inclusive growth has trended upward over the study period. This trend is non-linear and is characterized by two sub periods. From 1995 to 2005, the composite index of inclusive growth is essentially negative. On the other hand, positive growth in value is recorded over the second sub-period from 2005 to 2014. Overall and on average, these countries have experienced inclusive growth. Moreover, we also note that in countries such as Burkina Faso, Mauritius and Nigeria, on the side-lines of the informal sector inclusive growth has a negative trend. However, when we integrate the informal sector, the trend of inclusive growth changes sign and becomes positive.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agriculture Development in India: A State Level Analysis

Surendra Singh

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 17-34
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2020/v6i230162

Agriculture plays vital role in the process of economic development of less developed countries like, India. Besides providing food for the nation, agriculture absorbs labor, provides saving, contributes to the market of industrial goods and earn overseas exchange. The present study attempted to examine the performance of Indian agriculture during post green revolution period and economic reform period. A semi-log model was used to calculate compound annual growth rate of major food and non-food crops. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the land use pattern change and cropping pattern change. Fertilizer use ratio was calculated to examine the judicious use of chemical fertilizers. Study findings reveal that though, green revolution moved out from the food crisis arisen in the early sixties in some extent, but it also brought regional disparities in the resources use, productivity and cropping pattern.  Promotional price policy for some cash crops leads to scarcity in others. Change in an environmental factors, along with economic and technological factors are increasing degree of the vulnerability in farm profits in particular and the livelihood of farmers in general. The present study suggested following policy implications.  First, there is need of ultramodern technology that provides up-to-date weather information. Second, government should promote home-made bio-fertilizers and organic farm practices. Third, an intensive survey should be carrying out to understand the farm requirement of marginal farmers and based on the feedback mechanism, technology would be develop. Fourth, private investors should be invited to develop a food chain mechanism to procure the food items at the time of harvesting and release in the off-cropping season for price stability. Lastly, India needs land reforms, in which, land consolidation and identification of real farmers should be given first priority.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Economic Freedom on Creating Happiness and Inequality: International Evidences

Debraj Roka

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 35-50
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2020/v6i230163

It is remaining a big question in happiness economics, what is the common motto of human beings? What human beings want to achieve? Are these, money, good job, position, power, peace, good living condition, good health, good family, good environment and what others? All researchers from different disciplines are investigating to solve this economic problem and Most of the researchers agreed that happiness is the common aim of everyone in the world. The paper entitled “Does Economic Freedom Create Happiness or Inequality?” is estimated the effect of economic freedom on happiness by using other control variables like Gross Domestic Product growth, per capita and inequality. The paper analyzed the panel data covering 120 countries from 2008 to 2016. The fixed and random effect, the Generalized Least Squares, First in Difference and Linear Dynamic Panel Data/generalized method of moments estimation method are applied as the econometric strategies in this paper. The results found that the statistically significant and strong linear positive association between economic freedom and happiness in overall sampled countries and also found the positive linear association between income with happiness and a negative association between economic freedom and inequality and inequality and happiness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Driving Farm Gate Price of Tomatoes in Ghana: An Application of Hedonic Model

Margaret Aba Sam Hagan, Appiah Godfrey Acheampong, Dadson Awunyo-Vitor

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2020/v6i230164

The study examined the relationship between product characteristics and price of tomatoes in Ghana. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 300 sampled tomato farmers. The data collected included the price and quality characteristics of tomatoes traded in spot transactions in Akumadan and Tanoso districts in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. In respect of inferential statistics, hedonic price model was used to determine factors influencing farm grate price of tomatoes in the study area. The results of the study revealed that the age group involved in tomato production in the study area is youthful and dominated by men. Illiteracy is high and the majority of farmers are of Akan origin with a family-size above five (5). About half of the respondents sell their produce at the farm gate. According to the result of the hedonic model, five factors are statistically significant in the determination of the price of tomatoes, namely: distance to the farm, road quality, market information, graded product and quantity of tomatoes available for sale. The study therefore concluded that improved road networks, access to market information by the farmers, access to credit facilities from financial institution, and quality control with respect to product sorting or grading would improve the price received by the farmers. Thus there is the need for the government to improve the road network in the study area, particularly feeder roads to improve price received by the farmers. This would encourage existing farmers to continue with tomato production. Also, farmers need to be trained in sorting and grading of their produce to attract a good price.

Open Access Original Research Article

How are Holiday Photography Startups “Disrupting” Indonesia Tourism Business?

Marya Yenny, Kadek Wiweka, Suci Sandi Wachyuni, Putu Pramania Adnyana

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 62-77
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2020/v6i230165

The era of disruption has had an effect on changing the business model of the tourism industry based on startups. This business model has changed a variety of tourism businesses, ranging from online travel agents (OTA) to culinary. One of the startups that are currently developing among the millennial generation is holiday photography. This phenomenon encourages researchers to examine the opportunities and challenges of the development of tourism startups, especially in the company “FAT” (under the pseudonym). More specifically, this study identifies business models and their market characteristics. Besides, this study also analyzes the opportunities and challenges of the emergence of these startups. This study uses a qualitative approach with descriptive methods to describe the phenomenon of disruption, startups business models, and illustrate the opportunities and challenges that may be faced in the future by “FAT” company. The sampling technique used in the study is Quota Sampling by involving 31 consumers who have used “FAT” services. This number is used by considering the limited number of consumers who have ever used this startup service. The primary data in this study uses netnographic techniques by observing “FAT”'s website and social media, as well as conducting interviews with key informants from “FAT”. Besides, this study also distributed e-questionnaires via Instagram's direct messages. The analytical method used for this research is interactive analysis, which divided into three stages, including data reduction, drawing conclusions, and presenting data. This research found that the tourism industry in the era of disruption emphasized efficiency and effectiveness strategies. This strategy is entirely appropriate when looking at market segments, most of which are millennials or active users of gadgets and social media. While some alternative strategies that can be done by a “FAT” company include focusing on brands, marketing techniques, attractive and popular tourist sites, service innovation, and collaboration with trusted local photographer partners. Considering the area of holiday photography research is still limited, this research expected to be a reference for further research, especially related to tourism startups. Besides, practically, the results of this study can be useful for tourism stakeholders to find out the challenges of business in the era of distraction and strategies for developing a business model based on startups.