Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Micro Finance Institutions on the Development of Micro Enterprises (MEs) in Sri Lanka

Wasantha Rajapakshe

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i130227

Aim: The study investigates the impact of microfinance practices on the growth of micro-enterprises (MEs) concerning the Central Province, Sri Lanka. It has been discovered that the growth of microbusinesses is dependent on gender, age, education level and nature of the industry.

Design/Methodology/Approach: Multinomial Logistic Regression models was applied in this study. Multinomial logistic regression is frequently used for the analysis of categorical response data with continuous or categorical explanatory variables. Parameter estimates are usually obtained through direct maximum likelihood estimation. Two models were used to test the hypothesis concerning the three practices, micro-credit, training and advisory services. Primary data were obtained from 200 registered microenterprises (ME) owners in the Central Province through convenience sampling methods.  Data collection was conducted using a self-structured questionnaire.

Results and Conclusion: According to the results, microfinance practices have a significant relationship with the development of MEs, while Microcredit and advisory services have a significant impact on the development of MEs. Training programmes have not significantly impacted on the development of MEs. The research concludes that microfinance as a whole educates and helps to develop micro financed micro-scale enterprise businesses and positively impact those families in the Central Province, Sri Lanka.

Research limitations/implications: Data were limited to select only one province in Sri Lanka out of nine using a self-structured questionnaire.  Also considering the response rate and sample size, there are limitations to generalize the findings. This research was restricted to three variables micro-credit; Training and Advisory services impact of other factors that can influence the growth of MEs did not fall under the scope of this study.

Originality and Value: The impact of microfinance practices on MEs growth in Central Province in Sri Lanka is an under-researched area of study.  The findings of this study can act as a guideline in the future for decision-makers to identify factors that influence more on MEs development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rubber Slippers and Environmental Effect in KCB School in Bhutan

Jigme Dorji

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i130228

This paper reports the findings from the project implemented in one of the center schools in western district in Bhutan to enhance waste management behaviour among the students. It took the case of using rubber slippers which the Bhutan government provides to center school students for free as an object of focus for studying students’ awareness about the effect of rubber and plastic waste on health and environment. The baseline data were collected from grade 10 students (N=30) using questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Based on the baseline findings, intervention activities were formulated and implemented for a month. Posters were distributed and online sessions were conducted. Besides, an alternative to rubber slipper was explored and experimented on 15 participants to draw comparison in terms of cost, comfort and durability. Post-intervention data were collected using the same tools used for baseline data. Data were analyzed employing descriptive analysis by counting frequency for quantitative data and content analysis technique for qualitative data. The project found that students’ perspective toward the rubber waste changed after the project intervention. And it can be concluded that this change is a positive sign that rubber slippers could be replaced by alternative footwear which would reduce waste production contributing to the health and environment significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Transformation of Subak in Northern Kuta Tourism Area, Bali: From Agricultural to Cultural-Service

I. Nyoman Sunarta, Saptono Nugroho, I. Made Adikampana

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 26-38
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i130229

As one of the world cultural heritage designated by UNESCO, Subak in Bali experienced various challenges in the framework of its existence. Subak is recognized as a traditional Balinese agricultural institution based on local water management. The risks that subak must face when in the circle of international tourism practices because Bali is a tourist destination that is very reliable by the Government of Indonesia in order to obtain foreign exchange. The purpose of this article is to reveal the problems faced by as a local genious irrigation system. Especially related to spatial function changes that occur in Northern Kuta tourism area, Bali, by identifying the distribution of subak, composition, and typology of existing actors related to their interest in water, sub-urban development patterns, and subak alienation practices. Spatial approach adopted to determine spatial changes that occur ranging from agriculture to tourism. Data collection based on spatial analysis with GIS application, observation, interview, and focus group discussion. Spatial changes were found to be caused by the penetration of accommodation development, accessibility, and communal facilities. This situation occurs because of the limited tourism space in the center of tourism areas or tourism business areas (TBD) such as Kuta and Legian. There has been a transformation of spatial functions: from agricultural functions to cultural-service functions. The change in spatial planning indicates a tendency to shift the socio-cultural community around Kuta Tourism Area from agrarian to sub-urban characteristics. Thus, it has an impact on the existence of subak as the last bastion of sustainable tourism development in Bali.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrating Farmer Producer Organisations in Sikkim Organic Mission: Opportunities, Challenges and Policy Measures

Rajiv Gurung, Manesh Choubey

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i130231

Sikkim, a small mountainous state in the northeast region of India launched an organic mission in 2003 and aimed to become fully organic by 2015. Since organic farming was being traditionally practised by most of the Sikkimese farmers since ages, adoption of organic farming in the state was not a difficult task. In 2016, Sikkim was declared “India’s first fully organic state”. However, even after achieving the organic tag, Sikkimese crops have not been able to reach high-value organic markets at a larger scale. Most crops are sold within the state at local markets or roadside-stalls. Production, processing and marketing of organic crops under existing farmer collectives like Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) will further boost the organic mission and benefit the farmers. With the help of a primary survey among 60 organic farmers in Sikkim, this paper first identifies the constraints faced by organic farmers existing still after the launch of organic mission and then advocates role and necessity of existing Farmer Producer Organisations to enhance the mission. On the basis of mean score, constraints in order of severity were lack of reliable marketing channels (2.87), low yield(2.67), incidence of pests and diseases (2.40), competition from non-organic food (2.33), lower profitability compared to conventional farming (2.20), exploitation by middlemen (2.12), high transportation costs (1.98), lack of knowledge about bio-inputs and technology (1.90), lack of storage and processing facilities (1.87) and timely access to seeds (1.68).

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Impact on Regional Tourism Development in Bangladesh-A Study of Cumilla District

S. M. Nazrul Islam, Md. Al-Amin, Sk. Rahima Akter

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 50-58
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i130232

The travel industry is one of the most developing businesses all around the globe. Bangladesh can possibly create the travel industry on account of its alluring natural beauty and rich cultural heritage. But the COVID-19 adversely impacts the travel and tourism industry all over the world and Bangladesh is no exception. The main objective of the study was to find out the COVID-19 impact on regional tourism development in Bangladesh-A study of Cumilla district. The study area was Cumilla District. Tourists of Cumilla District were the population of the study. The study has done mainly based on primary and secondary data. For collecting primary data, the survey method is used by distributing online questionnaires through social media. From the analysis, it was found that at present all the tourist places have been opened for tourists. But the presence of tourists is not so high. The majority of the respondents said high damage has been done to Cumilla tourism due to lockdown & it has also caused a lot of damage to the development of the sights & the surrounding area in tourist places. The majority of the respondents are satisfied with transportation quality. But they are dissatisfied with non-compliance with hygiene rules, high cost of touring, poor security & the management style of tourist place authority. Most of them suggest for arranging adequate thermal scanners & hand sanitizer at the entrance of the tourist place, reducing the cost of touring & taking more promotional activity. Some guidelines have been mentioned in the recommendation part.