Open Access Data Article

Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries: Applying Financial Technology as a Panacea

Araniyar Isukul, Ben Tantua

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 42-60
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i230237

Traditional banking methods of addressing the problem of financial inclusion in developing countries is not working efficiently. As it is becoming obvious, opening operational and functional banking business offices in many developing countries is not a financially viable option. Banking offices need enormous amounts of resources, equipment and personnel to run efficiently. In most developing countries were low income is the norm rather than the exception, it is not possible to sustain a policy objective that employs the use of banking business offices to address the problem of financial inclusion. Such initiative could start out well, however the possibility of sustainability is called into question. Thus, whatever meaningful gains have been garnered from such policy will be reversed or lost overtime. This research employs the use of quantitative methods and it sets out to test whether the usage of financial technology has had any meaningful impact in improving financial inclusion in the developing countries selected in the study. The findings of the research reveal that financial technology offers the instrument, tools and mechanism for drive financial inclusion in ways traditional methods of banking cannot. Financial technology offers, cost effective and cheaper means of driving financial development. This research suggests that financial technology should be used as a means of driving financial development in developing countries as it offers a more sustainable and cost-effective solution to the problem of financial inclusion. Developing countries, should embrace, adopt and adapt financial technologies to address their financial development issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance and Productivity: An Empirical Study on Private Bank of Noakhali Region in Bangladesh

Fatema Akter Jeni, . Momotaj, Md. Al-Amin

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i230234

Human Resources Management literature regards training as the bloodstream of any organization because the success of an organization to achieve its objectives and goals highly depends on its workforce. For this reason, organizations should invest in employees’ training to enhance their performance and that of an organization. Nonetheless, some organizations regard training as an unnecessary expenditure and always cut training budgets to improve their financial standing to the detriment of their employees’ welfare because that action incapacitates staff to adapt to the ever-changing working environment and uncertain conditions on account of, inter alia, rapid technological innovation and organizational change. This study employed stratified sampling technique to draw a sample of 60 employees from a population of 70 employees through self-administered questionnaire to examine the impact of training on employees’ performance, employee’s motivation and job satisfaction in the banking sector in Private bank  of Noakhali region in Bangladesh. This results show that the mean for on the job training and development located from 3.23 to 4.4 and for off the job training and development from 2.36 to 4.05. The overall impact of training and development from the perspective of employees of private banking sector in Noakhali region has mean and standard deviation respectively 3.54 and 0.95 in total. This result indicates that training and development has a high impact on the employee’s performance and productivity in the perspective of employees of private bank in Noakhali region. The findings of the study generally revealed that training not only increases employees’ performance but also positively affects employees’ motivation and job satisfaction within the  Private banking sector in Bangladesh Therefore, the banking sector in Bangladesh should regularly allocate resources for employees’ training based on identified skill gaps to sharpen employees’ skills, knowledge and abilities to capacitate them to cope with the ever-changing working environment and uncertain conditions and to improve their motivation and job satisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on the Protection of Labor Rights and Benefits of Taiwanese Working Abroad ─Case Study of Working in the Philippines

Chi-Hsin Wu, Shang-Lin Tsai

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 19-34
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i230235

Under the influence of rapid economic development and policy, the tendency of Taiwanese to go overseas for employment has gradually increased. However, in the face of limited foreign legal protection and the inability to extend the application of relevant domestic labor laws, there is currently a lack of protection for nationals working overseas; on the contrary, the Philippines, a major labor force going abroad adjacent to Taiwan (ROC), has plans for regulations, insurance systems, and care after returning to the country. It can be said that the protection of the rights and benefits of overseas workers is relatively sound. This paper reviews the literature and relevant laws and regulations, and cooperates with in-depth interviews to understand the labor rights issues that Taiwanese may face in overseas employment, and compare the differences in the systems of the two countries. We look forward to identifying the experience and methods that Taiwan (ROC) can use as a reference, and putting forward suggestions for policy and system improvements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Company Income Tax and Unemployment in Nigeria

Chioma Chidinma George-Anokwuru, Ezaal Okowa

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 35-41
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i230236

This paper focused on the impact of company income tax on unemployment in Nigeria from 1980 to 2019. The data for this study were sourced from the statistical bulletin of Nigeria’s apex bank. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) methods were used as the main analytical tools. The ADF unit test result revealed stationarity of the variables at order zero which satisfied the requirement to employ the OLS method. The OLS regression result revealed that corporate income tax has positive and significant relationship with unemployment rate in Nigeria. Prime lending rate has negative and significant relationship with unemployment rate in Nigeria. Inflation rate has negative and insignificant relationship with unemployment rate in Nigeria. The study therefore concluded that tax revenue from company income has not been efficiently and effectively used to provide infrastructural facilities and social amenities that will help the different sectors of the economy to function very well thereby reducing unemployment in the country. Based on the results, the study suggested that government should ensure that revenue from corporate income tax and other sources are efficiently and effectively used to provide infrastructural facilities and social services that will help the different sectors of the economy to function very well, in so doing unemployment will be reduced. The management, administration and implementation of corporate income tax should be done in such a way that it will not hinder investment and employment in the economy. At the same time, ensure accountability and transparency from government officials on the management of revenue derived from company income tax.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization and Effectiveness of ICT as Agricultural Information Delivery System in Thakurgao, Bangladesh

Md. Enamul Haque, Muhammad Ziaul Hoque

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 61-68
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i230238

The study was conducted in Thakurgaon sadar Upazila to determine farmers’ perception of the extent and factors of ICTs effectiveness in transferring farming information. A total of 250 people who were already been taken services from different ICT center was selected as sample respondents following a random sampling technique. Primary data were collected using a predesigned interview schedule. Findings revealed that 57.2% of the respondents contacted with Union Digital Center while 38.8% contacted with government own ICT center AICC (Agricultural Information and Communication Center) for their farming-related information. Majority (79.2%) of the respondents opined that they have utilized ICTs moderately to highly whereas three-fourth of the respondents found ICTs moderately to extremely effective in transferring farming technology. Uninterrupted electricity supply, high speed of internet, providing regular training on ICTs, skilled staff and technicians for ICTs and provision for repairing ICT tools are being perceived as significant factors of ICTs effectiveness. Near future, ICT may offer a great opportunity to facilitate the flow of information and technology service delivery to the rural people of Bangladesh.