Open Access Original Research Article

Healthcare Expenditure and Life Expectancy in Africa: A Panel Study

Salami Abdulganiyu, Mamman Tijjani

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i430246

Objective of the Study: The study examined the nature of relationship between healthcare expenditure and life expectancy in a panel of 45 African Countries, disaggregated into different sub-regions in the continent.

Methodology: The study used fixed effect method and two-stage least square technique to investigate the relationship between life expectancy and life expectancy in the selected African countries, from 2000 to 2015. Aside from the major variables of interest, GDP per capita, basic sanitation and urban population were used as control variables. The choice of countries and time frame were based on availability of data. The data used was sourced from World Bank website, and analyzed using STATA software.

Main Findings: The fixed effect method found that healthcare spending is an important predictor of life expectancy in Africa. It was found to positively and significantly influence life expectancy in West Africa, but significantly and negatively influences life expectancy in Central and Southern regions of Africa. Contrariwise, the two-stage least square shows that healthcare spending is a negative predictor of life expectancy in Central Africa, but not a significant predictor in Eastern, Northern, Southern and Western Africa.

Conclusion: Conclusions from the study are two-fold. It can be concluded that fixed effect method is not a suitable estimation technique for models with endogeneity and reversed causation issues, and that healthcare expenditure is significant negative predictor of life expectancy in Central Africa; but not a significant predictor of life expectancy in Eastern, Northern, Southern and Western regions of Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Employees Commitment and Distributive Justice to the Reward of Management Practices in Some Selected Organizations in South East Nigeria

Ugochukwu Paul Orajaka

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i430247

The study focused on understanding the influence of employee commitment and distributive justice to the reward of Management practices and its performance in some selected organizations in south East Nigeria. The data was collected using research questionnaires. Research design was adopted for this study. The sample sizes of 365 persons were used for the analyses. The application of correlation tools and mean likert was employed to evaluate the significant relationship and coefficient of determination of the variables. However, the tools show that there is a strong positive relationship association between the employee commitment and distributive justice in public university. The analysis also shows that there is a strong positive significant relationship in the system. The results also shows that the hypothesis will be accepted which says that there’s a strong and positive relationship with employee commitment and distribution of justice to reward of management in South East Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlating Women Empowerment with Micro Finance in a Small Village in Bangladesh by Using Statistical Methodology

MST Fatema Akter, Abdur Rakib Nayeem, Md. Abir Hossain Didar

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i430248

Women empowerment is the most significant and examining issues in non-industrial nations extraordinarily in Bangladesh. This study investigated the viability and Correlating Women Empowerment with Micro Finance in a Small Village in Bangladesh by Using Statistical Methodology. With absolute number of 220 respondents, where, 100 was experienced micro credit program and another 120 respondent did not have any experience regarding the micro credit program. Stratified random sampling was used from Aatghar Union porishad under Shaltha Upozilla in Faridpur, Bangladesh and information has been gathered through face to face interview and personal meeting by utilizing overview strategy. By investigating five measurements; monetary decision making, household unit dynamic, physical movement freedom, property ownership and finally, responsibility for political and social awareness the women empowerment was estimated. The outcomes demonstrated the positive impacts of micro credit programs on women strengthening inside different measurements and investigation uncovers that the women empowerment is impacted by the improvement of miniature credit programs in Bangladesh through the selected five measurements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Impacts of Possible Corrections to Withholding Income Tax Rates in the Brazilian Internal Environment

Julcemar Bruno Zilli, Abel Ângelo Amaral

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 28-38
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i430249

The central theme addressed is the economic analysis caused by the absence of adequate corrections in the IRRF rates (income tax) between the period 2007 to 2017, through the IPCA index (consumer price index), to maintain or increase social well-being, the population's disposable income. taxpayer and consumer purchasing parity. From the data collection and applicability of the research methods, it was found that the contributing families collected 180 billion reais more in taxes. Through econometric models, with statistical significance of 1% and at most 5% in the variables, the Breusch and Pagan tests were used, and the adoption of the Pooling method for data extraction. After the analyzes, the models demonstrate in a crystalline way the reduction of disposable income by 0.0728%, of national savings by 0.0862% and in consumption by 0.0532% for each 1% increase in the new amount collected from taxes. Leading to a minimization of the declarants' well-being and how this value, if entered in the productive means, would contribute to the increase of economic indicators, however, according to the research purpose, the current IRRF table that should be in force is presented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Financially Sustainable Families: Integrated Social Work Praxis

B. S. Sachin, K. Saravana, C. Rajashekar, B. Ramesh

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i430250

Financial life of a family is very crucial. However less importance is given for financial literacy among structural rural poor, hence the interventional study was taken up to address the gap with Social Work Intervention. The researcher proposed In-Basket technique (one of the technique practiced in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)) to spread financial literacy. The Present study was interventional in nature hence, Single Subject Research design (AB Model) was adopted to assess baseline and intervention phases of level of financial anxiety among families. Three structural poor families were chosen for study in Kunte village.Nelamangala block, Bengaluru rural District, Baseline assessment was done by using structured Financial Anxiety Assessment scale, Intervention was done by using In-basket technique. Considerable changes found after intervention in the level of financial anxiety of the family members.