Open Access Original Research Article

Latent Factors of Non-filer: An Analysis of Data from Inland Revenue Office, Surkhet

Ram Prasad Mainali

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i230278

This study examines the inducing factors of non-filters in income tax that analyses the data from one of the remote administrative unit of the Inland Revenue Department of Nepal, Surkhet. Descriptive analysis as well as a Chi-squared test is carried out to examine the impact of government grant policy on elevating non filers. “Grant in agriculture” is assessed as one of its latent factors. Result confirms its significant positive impact on upraising non-filers with a minimal impact on revenue. Therefore, it suggests to free-off grant seekers from compulsory registration in income tax as one of the eligibility criteria for grant application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Digital Financial Literacy and Its Determinants: An Empirical Evidences from Rural India

N. P. Abdul Azeez, S. M. Jawed Akhtar

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 8-22
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i230279

Banking and financial institutions are undergoing a dramatic transformation in this digital age. Despite the extended digital communications, a significant proportion of the people cannot transact financially especially in rural areas. Effective financial transactions could be made possible through skills, awareness, and attitudes to use digital tools and digital transactions tools. Therefore, digital financial literacy became more critical nowadays and is considered prerequisites and preliminary steps for people's inclusion in the financial system. The determinants of digital financial literacy focus on the socio-economic demographic factors and used ordinary least square, multiple regression model. This model determines how various independent variables, namely age, gender, income, religion, social groups, family size, marital status, educational level, occupation, etc., significantly influence the respondents' digital financial literacy. The analysis is based on the primary data with five hundred samples collected from the rural areas of Aligarh district.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foreign Exchange Market Intervention and Exchange Rate Stability: An Empirical Anayisis for Nigeria

E. Adedeji Kayode, O. Apinran Martins, I. Awoniyi Bisola

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i230281

The essential roles played by exchange rate on general macroeconomic stability has attracted the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) to intervene in the foreign exchange market, in order to smoothen exchange rate volatility, among other goals. The study to examine the impact of foreign exchange market intervention on stability of exchange rate in Nigeria with a monthly time series data from 2000M1 to 2020M12. The research employs the use of Autoregressive Distributive Lag approach (ARDL) of analysis. The result indicates that the currency interventions policy of the CBN in Nigeria is effective and exerts significant impact on the exchange rate stability of Naira in both in the short and long-run within the period under investigation. We, therefor, recommend that the monetary authority should continue to employ the usage of stock of foreign reserves in supporting the exchange rate by increasing funding of the operations in foreign exchange market.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production Efficiency of Sorghum: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Kafta-Humera District Tigray Ethiopia

Tewoderos Meleaku, Degye Goshu, Bosena Tegegne

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 46-61
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i230282

Efficiency is an important factor for increasing productivity which leads to increase market output to achieve the goal of food security. In economics where resources are scarce and opportunities to use new technologies are limited, increasing efficiency remains the most reasonable means to raise productivity without necessarily developing new technologies or increasing the resource base. So, this study aimed to investigate level of production efficiency, factors affecting production inefficiency of sorghum small holder farmers in Kafta-humera district of Tigray Ethiopia. A two stage sampling technique was used to select 289 sample farmers who were interviewed using a semi- structured questionnaire to obtain data pertaining to sorghum production during the year 2016/2017.Stochastic production frontier model was used to identify production efficiency levels, where as Tobit models was used to estimate factors affecting production efficiency levels. Accordingly, the mean technical, allocative and economic efficiencies were 78.01%, 65.21% and 39.91% respectively. This implies that output can be increased by 21.99% or cost can be reduced by 34.79% with the existing level of technology and resources. Input variables such as land, labor, tractor plow power, chemicals, DAP and Urea fertilizers positively affects production of sorghum. The discrepancy ratio (γ) implied that about 91.91% of the variation in sorghum production was attributed to technical inefficiency effects. Tobit model revealed that age, education, non-farm income, credit, extension service and training positively and significantly affected technical efficiency while age square and total livestock holding had negatively and significantly affected. Additionally, age square, education and frequency of farm visit positively and significantly affected allocative efficiency, while age, non-farm income, credit and extension contact have a negative and significant affect. Economic efficiency was positively and significantly affected by age, education, non-farm income, credit, extension contact and frequencies of farm visit but negatively affected by age square. These indicate that there is a room to increase in production efficiency of sorghum in the study area. Therefore, government authorities and other concerned bodies should take into consideration the above mentioned demographic, socioeconomic and institutional factors to increase efficiency of sorghum.

Open Access Review Article

Study the Meteorological Environment on Physical and Mental Well-Being (Ayurveda and Modern View)-A Conceptual Study

A. B. Dharmarathna, B. L. Edirisinghe, W. M. S. S. K. Kulathunga

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i230280

Introduction: Ritucharya (seasonal regimen) have been mentioned in the classics of Ayurveda. According to Ayurveda tridoshas (Three body humors)plays important role in maintaining physiological state of an individuals. But chaya(Accumilation), prakopa(Unbalanced) and prasmana(Balanced) of doshas takes place naturally by seasonal changes. A year is divided into 2 Kaals (time periods-Uththarayanaya/Adana kaal and Dakshinayanaya/Visaraga kaal). Each Kaal comprises of 3 seasons which gives a total of 6 seasons in a year. Each season lasts for two months The impacts of climate change include warming temperatures, changes in precipitation, increases in the frequency or intensity of some extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. These impacts threaten our health by affecting the food , the water, the air and the weather we experience.

Objectives: To identify the Meteorological environment on Physical and Mental well-being (Ayurveda and Modern view)

Methodology: Literature review was done from classical Ayurvedic texts,web references and modern literature regarding selected Scientific Research articles published in PubMed, Research gate, Google scholar, Science direct, Elsevier, Cochrane library and PMC,including health impact of meteorological changes.

Results: According to Ayurveda tridoshas plays important role in maintaining physiological state of an individuals. But chaya, prakopa and prasmana of doshas takes place naturally by seasonal changes. In the beginning of visarga kala and at the end of adana kala, human beings on the Earth experience weakness. In the middle of these two periods, humans possess medium strength. At the end of the visarga kala and at the beginning of adana kala the strength in human beings is maximum. The impacts of climate change include warming temperatures, changes in precipitation, increases in the frequency or intensity of some extreme weather events, and rising sea levels. These impacts threaten our health by affecting the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the weather we experience.

Conclusion: Lifestyle disorders are very common in the present era, basically originating from lack of following seasonal regimens due to lack of concentration in seasonal characteristics In this study reflect that meteorological environment effect on both physical and mental health.