Open Access Systematic Review Article

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) Containing Drug Formulations Mentioned in “Thalpathe piliyam”: A Review

J. I. D. Diddeniya, W. M. S. S. K. Kulatunga

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i430290

Introduction: Cannabis sativa is an herbaceous plant which is used as a remedy for many diseases in Traditional Medicine of Sri Lanka. Even though cannabis is the most illicit plant around the world, its medicinal properties are beneficial in numerous ways. The active ingredients of cannabis are Cannabinol, Cannabidiol, Tetrahydro cannabinol, Tetrahydro cannabivarin etc.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to make an overview of the different formulae containing cannabis, their system wise indications, and preparatory methods and to analyze the amount of cannabis percentage in the formulations mentioned in “Thalpathe Piliyam”. And also to identify the social economic impact of cannabis to the community through this.

Methodology: For this review all the twenty one “Thalpathe Piliyam” books were used and other necessary facts were obtained from published research articles in data bases such as Science direct, PubMed etc.

Results: The results revealed that, majority of drug formulations, that is 49.23% acts on the Anna pachana Vyuhava (Gastro intestinal tract) and apart from that 40.77% acts on Naadi vyuhava (Nervous system), 7.69% on Raktha vyuhava (Circulatory system), 6.54% on Prajanana sansthaana (Reproductive system), 5.77% on Swasana sansthaana (Respiratory system) and 22.69% on other diseases by giving relief to diseases such as indigestion, vomiting, cancer, diabetes, piles, cough, diarrhea etc. Among the different preparatory methods of drug formulations which contain Cannabis as an ingredient, “Guli” (pills) was the most abundant formulation with a percentage of 48.07%. Other formulations such as Kalka (pastes), Kashaya (decocotion), Swarasa (fresh juice), Paththu (poultice) were also mentioned in the book. By analyzing the amount of Cannabis percentage, the highest amount of the drug preparations were in between the range of less than or equal to 5% while the least amount of drug preparations were in the range from more than 20%. This indicates that most preparations contain Cannabis less than 5% as an amount in them.

Conclusion: Therefore it can be concluded that, “Thalpathe Piliyam” is a rich repository for the valuable traditional formulae which consist of multiple formulations which contains Cannabis and also very small amount of Cannabis amount can act very efficiently in curing diseases. Furthermore, its socio economic impact to the community can be also measured through it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Private Ownership Structure and Firm Productivity: A Firm - Level Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

Michael Okike UGWU, Ambrose Nnaemeka OMEJE

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 9-22
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i430289

Private-owned firms make up a large chunk of the firms existing in different countries of the world, especially Nigeria, and as such, contribute its quota to economic activities and growth of the economy. This study examined private ownership structure and firm productivity from the angle of firm - level empirical evidence from Nigeria using World Bank, Nigeria enterprise survey 2014 data and applied econometric model based on OLS technique. It was found among others by the study that a percentage increase in firms owned by private domestic individuals, companies or organizations (private domestic owned firms), would on the average have a significant positive impact on firm productivity in Nigeria by about 0.217276 units. In line with this, the study concludes that private domestic owned firms has positive significant impact on firm productivity in Nigeria. The study recommended among others that government should create more enabling/conducive business environment for private domestic firms to thrive and contribute more to overall economic growth and development. When this done, it will significantly increase employment, especially youth employment, reduce poverty and the menace of insecurity, increase per capita incomes, raise overall standard of the living of the people, and finally contribute significantly to economic growth and development of not only Nigeria, but Africa at large.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do Energy Poverty and Energy Consumption Drive CO2 Emissions? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Mewamba-Chekem Juliette, Noumessi Fodjou Willy

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 23-37
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i430291

Energy poverty is a multidimensional concept, but in the developing country context, it could refer to the lack or difficulty of people to access modern and reliable energy services. It refers particularly to access to electricity and to modern and clean cooking fuels. This limited access constitutes a serious hindrance to socioeconomic development and has adverse consequences on environment. The present study attempts to investigation the contribution of energy poverty and consumption to CO2 emissions in 20 Sub-Saharan Africa countries over 1996-2015. Using Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) and Panel-corrected standard errors (PCSE), our results broadly suggest non-significant effect of energy poverty on CO2 emissions. However, we found evidence that primary energy consumption drives CO2 emissions. To mitigate the adverse effects of energy consumption on environment, governments should design and implement policies to improve energy efficiency and promote renewable energies use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Outbound Tourism from Bangladesh: A Study on Young Bangladeshi Tourists

Sanjoy Kumar Roy, Md. Abdul Halim, Shohel Md. Nafi, Shohidul Islam Sazib

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i430292

The aim of this study is to identify the factors for young Bangladeshi tourists to participate in outbound tourism. This study also attempted to create a young tourist profile. The target population for this study encompassed young Bangladeshi outbound travellers from 18 to 35 years old and who took at least one foreign tour. The questionnaire was formulated in the online survey development platform known as Google form and was distributed to the respondents. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. To evaluate the responses of the respondents a five-point likert scale was used. This study used SPSS 26.0 to analyze the data. The results of the demographic characteristics of the respondents were analyzed by the frequency distribution and percentage. However, mean, standard deviation and ANOVA tests were employed to analyze the variables of this study. The survey results indicate that ‘for visiting and experiencing new places & its culture’ and ‘for traveling with my friends’ are the most influencing motivations to travel among young Bangladeshi tourists: in the same time ‘lack of money’, ‘family responsibilities’ and, ‘mode of transportation’ are the most concerning factors for obstructing travel decisions for them. The other concerning limiting factors which can’t be overlooked are ‘safety and security concerns’ ‘accommodation availability’ and ‘lack of time for travel’. The findings of this study will help the business operator to formulate strategy and offer a suitable travel package for the young tourist market. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Consumers’ Post-purchase Regret Determinants in Sri Lankan Shopping Malls

E. A. S. K. Ekanayake, E. A. C. P. Karunarathne

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 47-60
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v11i430293

Aims: This study aims to find the factors affecting post-purchase regret at shopping malls in Sri Lanka.  Marketing needs better recognition of customer behavior decisions. The importance of this study is to find the gaps in customer expectations and what malls actually deliver. It also aims to identify ways to create the best possible post-purchase customer experience.

Study design: Factors considered in this study have framed the number of alternatives forgone, the return process experience at mall shop, the self-esteem, and risk-aversion of the consumer.

Place and duration of study: People who have shopped at malls during the year 2020 were chosen via an online survey, and 369 responses were collected concerning the period mentioned above.

Methodology: A questionnaire was used to gather data, and its reliability has been tested with Pearson Product-Moment values and reliability measured via a factor analysis using SPSS application.

Results: The results indicated that the number of alternatives forgone, return procedure of the mall shop, and the consumers' self-esteem positively associated with post-purchase regret. At the same time, risk-aversion shows a negative relationship with post-purchase regret.

Conclusion: The number of alternatives is the most significant factor that relates to post-purchase regret. To lower the regret of alternatives forgone, mall shop managers must look into customer’s preferences. It is better to cluster the loyal and non-loyal customers in a long time. The number of options showcase in the mall must be limited, but with a sense of marketing. To decrease dissatisfaction with the return procedure, one should enhance the services behind the return procedure and provide correct directions. Risk aversion is negatively proportional to post-purchase regret.