Open Access Original Research Article

Banking and Economic Growth: Comparison between Islamic and Conventional Banking in Malaysia

Nor Asmat Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Kamarulzaman

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i130294

This study investigates the contribution of conventional banking and Islamic banking to economic growth in Malaysia. Return on assets, return on equity representing the profitability, total deposit, representing bank development, and several indicators such as total government expenditure, trade openness, and gross fixed capital formation were independent variables. In contrast, the dependent variable was GDP per capita. The study utilised secondary data collected from the Fitch Connect database and Datastream database. This study used a sample of 10 Islamic banking and 10 Conventional banking. The study found that the Islamic banking system variable can influence Malaysia's economic growth.  ROA and Ltdep are found significant and have positive effect to economic growth, but ROE  has adverse effects. On the other hand, the results show that ROA in Conventional bank does not have a relationship with economic growth. However, other banking indicators such as ROE and total deposit are significant to economic growth. Based on the ROE results, ROE Islamic bank contributes more to economic growth than Conventional bank because the percentage that contributes to the decreases of economic growth for Islamic banks is lesser than Conventional bank. The results also showed that Islamic banking provides an efficient channel for productive resources and monitors the use of the funds by the participation of business ventures, leading to bank profitability and then economic growth. This study also stressed on total deposit indicator as a proxy to bank development. This study found that total deposit for the both banking system is significant to economic growth. However, the contribution of banking development in conventional banking is much better than by Islamic banking. However, the gap of differences is too small, which shows that Islamic deposits can cope with conventional deposits. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers as Consumers of Quality Fertilizers: Willingness to Pay and Empirical Evidences from Bangladesh

Mahmuda Nasrin, Siegfried Bauer, Md Arman, Shamima Akhter

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 15-26
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i130295

The study investigated farmer’s willingness to pay for getting quality fertilizers by employing probit and ordered probit models as the quality of fertilizers were often adulterated in Bangladesh. Primary data collected from 300 farm households were utilized. Results indicated that an average farmer’s willingness to pay was influenced significantly by the farm size group, annual income, off-farm income, product prices and financial constraints. All farmers except marginal farmers were more likely to be willing to pay more than market prices for urea and MoP. The findings suggested for adjusting the farm size group specific subsidy policies. More off-farm employment opportunities could be created in the farming regions to strengthen farmer’s financial capability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Human Development Index: A Comparative Study between Nepal and Other SAARC Member Countries

Indra Mali Malakar, Bhaba Datta Sapkota

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i130296

This study aims at assessing the trends, patterns and compositions of indices of Human Development Index (HDI) of Nepal, with the bid of comparing these with those of the SAARC member countries. Using primary and secondary sources of data, the study embarks on a consecutive analysis of the years ranging from 2015 to 2019, while employing a descriptive research design. Simple descriptive tools; content analysis, trend line, and bar diagram are used for data presentation and analysis. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has been preparing the global Human Development Index report since 1990. The study argues that misplaced priorities and not necessarily a shortage of resources often prevent countries from reaching acceptable levels of human development indexes, and thus failing to assuring their citizens the necessary universal access to basic essential amenities such as health,  education, security and overall human emancipation. It concludes that, this type of comparison is pertinent because it would attract public attention, in terms of policy advocacy, which could lead to extensive positive policy initiatives for more detailed discussions and application of development strategies amongst the SAARC members’ countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farm Machine and Female Labour Participation A Study of Indian Districts

Syed Noman Ahmad, Mohd Murtaza

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i130297

Indian labour market has been witnessing a paradoxical situation in recent years. Despite registering higher economic development the female participation in economic activities has shown deceleration. The researchers in this field have identified several determinants and explanations at aggregate level. The present study is one of the few attempts to examine the trend of female participation in agriculture at district level. Taking number of tractor in a district as a proxy for farm machination, the study confirms an inverse relationship between farm machines and female participation in agriculture. It resolves the paradox in terms of lower women participation in agriculture sector.

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of India's Rural Development Budgetary Implementations

N.P. Abdul Azeez

South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v12i130298

Government expenditure patterns have changed tremendously over the last few years, especially in developing countries like India. Many studies found a positive relationship between government spending and rural development and poverty reduction and thereby economic growth. For a country like India, whose proportion of the rural population is about 70 per cent, governments' efforts in the form of its expenditure toward rural development are vital. It is also essential to analyze the relative contribution of various expenditures to rural development and reduce the poverty of rural people. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the head-wise budgetary and actual expenditure on the various centrally sponsored scheme for rural development of India.